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      XM02 is superior to placebo and equivalent to Neupogen™ in reducing the duration of severe neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in cycle 1 in breast cancer patients receiving docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy


      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , , 5

      BMC Cancer

      BioMed Central

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          Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) such as Filgrastim are used to treat chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. We investigated a new G-CSF, XM02, and compared it to Neupogen™ after myelotoxic chemotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients.


          A total of 348 patients with BC receiving docetaxel/doxorubicin chemotherapy were randomised to treatment with daily injections (subcutaneous 5 μg/kg/day) for at least 5 days and a maximum of 14 days in each cycle of XM02 (n = 140), Neupogen™ (n = 136) or placebo (n = 72). The primary endpoint was the duration of severe neutropenia (DSN) in cycle 1.


          The mean DSN in cycle 1 was 1.1, 1.1, and 3.9 days in the XM02, Neupogen™, and placebo group, respectively. Superiority of XM02 over placebo and equivalence of XM02 with Neupogen™ could be demonstrated. Toxicities were similar between XM02 and Neupogen™.


          XM02 was superior to placebo and equivalent to Neupogen™ in reducing DSN after myelotoxic chemotherapy.

          Trial Registration

          Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02270769

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          Most cited references 9

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          2006 update of recommendations for the use of white blood cell growth factors: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline.

          To update the 2000 American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline on the use of hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors (CSF). The Update Committee completed a review and analysis of pertinent data published from 1999 through September 2005. Guided by the 1996 ASCO clinical outcomes criteria, the Update Committee formulated recommendations based on improvements in survival, quality of life, toxicity reduction and cost-effectiveness. The 2005 Update Committee agreed unanimously that reduction in febrile neutropenia (FN) is an important clinical outcome that justifies the use of CSFs, regardless of impact on other factors, when the risk of FN is approximately 20% and no other equally effective regimen that does not require CSFs is available. Primary prophylaxis is recommended for the prevention of FN in patients who are at high risk based on age, medical history, disease characteristics, and myelotoxicity of the chemotherapy regimen. CSF use allows a modest to moderate increase in dose-density and/or dose-intensity of chemotherapy regimens. Dose-dense regimens should only be used within an appropriately designed clinical trial or if supported by convincing efficacy data. Prophylactic CSF for patients with diffuse aggressive lymphoma aged 65 years and older treated with curative chemotherapy (CHOP or more aggressive regimens) should be given to reduce the incidence of FN and infections. Current recommendations for the management of patients exposed to lethal doses of total body radiotherapy, but not doses high enough to lead to certain death due to injury to other organs, includes the prompt administration of CSF or pegylated G-CSF.
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            Reduction by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor of fever and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

            Neutropenia and infection are major dose-limiting side effects of chemotherapy. Previous studies have suggested that recombinant methionyl granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can reduce chemotherapy-related neutropenia in patients with cancer. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to test this hypothesis and the clinical implications. Patients with small-cell lung cancer were enrolled in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant methionyl G-CSF to study the incidence of infection as manifested by fever with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, less than 1.0 x 10(9) per liter, with a temperature greater than or equal to 38.2 degrees C) resulting from up to six cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or G-CSF, with treatment beginning on day 4 and continuing through day 17 of a 21-day cycle. The safety of the study treatment could be evaluated in 207 of the 211 patients assigned to either drug, and its efficacy in 199. At least one episode of fever with neutropenia occurred in 77 percent of the placebo group, as compared with 40 percent of the G-CSF group (P less than 0.001). Over all cycles of chemotherapy, the median duration of grade IV neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, less than 0.5 x 10(9) per liter) was six days with placebo as compared with one day with G-CSF. During cycles of blinded treatment, the number of days of treatment with intravenous antibiotics, the number of days of hospitalization, and the incidence of confirmed infections were reduced by approximately 50 percent when G-CSF was given, as compared with placebo. Mild-to-moderate medullary bone pain occurred in 20 percent of the patients receiving G-CSF. The use of G-CSF as an adjunct to chemotherapy in patients with small-cell cancer of the lung was well tolerated and led to reductions in the incidence of fever with neutropenia and culture-confirmed infections; in the incidence, duration, and severity of grade IV neutropenia; and in the total number of days of treatment with intravenous antibiotics and days of hospitalization.
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              EORTC guidelines for the use of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to reduce the incidence of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adult patients with lymphomas and solid tumours.

              Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is not only a major risk factor for infection-related morbidity and mortality, but is also a significant dose-limiting toxicity in cancer treatment. Patients developing severe (grade 3/4) or febrile neutropenia (FN) during chemotherapy frequently receive dose reductions and/or delays to their chemotherapy. This may impact on the success of treatment, particularly when treatment intent is either curative or to prolong survival. The incidence of severe or FN can be reduced by prophylactic treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs), such as filgrastim, lenograstim or pegfilgrastim. However, the use of G-CSF prophylactic treatment varies widely in clinical practice, both in the timing of therapy and in the patients to whom it is offered. While several academic groups have produced evidence-based clinical practice guidelines in an effort to standardise and optimise the management of FN, there remains a need for generally applicable, European-focused guidelines. To this end, we undertook a systematic literature review and formulated recommendations for the use of G-CSF in adult cancer patients at risk of chemotherapy-induced FN. We recommend that patient-related adverse risk factors such as elderly age (>or=65 years), be evaluated in the overall assessment of FN risk prior to administering each cycle of chemotherapy. In addition, when using a chemotherapy regimen associated with FN in >20% patients, prophylactic G-CSF is recommended. When using a chemotherapy regimen associated with FN in 10-20% patients, particular attention should be given to patient-related risk factors that may increase the overall risk of FN. In situations where dose-dense or dose-intense chemotherapy strategies have survival benefits, prophylactic G-CSF support is recommended. Similarly, if reductions in chemotherapy dose intensity or density are known to be associated with a poor prognosis, primary G-CSF prophylaxis may be used to maintain chemotherapy. Finally, studies have shown that filgrastim, lenograstim and pegfilgrastim have clinical efficacy and we recommend the use of any of these agents to prevent FN and FN-related complications, where indicated.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central
                12 November 2008
                : 8
                : 332
                [1 ]Auro del Giglio, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, Sao Paulo, Brazil and Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein Sao Paulo, Brazil
                [2 ]Alexandru Eniu, Institutul Oncologic Ion Chiricuţă, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
                [3 ]Doina Ganea-Motan, Spitalul Judetean de Urgenta, Suceava, Romania
                [4 ]Eskender Topuzov, Mechnikov State Medical Academy, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
                [5 ]Heinz Lubenau, BioGeneriX AG, Mannheim, Germany
                Copyright © 2008 del Giglio et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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