Serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1α) is a key regulator in hypoxic and ischemic brain injury. We determined the relationship between serum HIF-1α levels and long-term prognosis plus severity of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).
A total of 97 ICH cases and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and hematoma volume were used to assess hemorrhagic severity. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 1–3 at post-stroke 90 days was defined as a poor outcome.
Serum HIF-1α levels of ICH patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (median, 218.8 vs 105.4 pg/mL; P<0.001) and were substantially correlated with GCS score ( r=−0.485, P<0.001), hematoma volume ( r=0.357, P<0.001) and GOS score ( r=−0.436, P<0.001). Serum HIF-1α levels >239.4 pg/mL discriminated patients at risk of 90-day poor outcome with sensitivity of 65.9% and specificity of 79.3% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.725; 95% confidence interval, 0.625–0.811; P<0.001). Moreover, serum HIF-1α levels >239.4 pg/mL were independently associated with a poor 90-day outcome (odds ratio, 5.133; 95% confidence interval, 1.117–23.593; P=0.036).