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      Satisfaction with regular hospital foodservices and associated factors among adult patients in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia: A facility-based cross-sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Food service in hospital is one of the essential parts of the treatment process that determines recovery length and a hospital stay of patients. Even though many researches have been conducted on patients’ satisfaction with healthcare services, there is a lack of studies that specifically address the satisfaction with food service at healthcare facilities in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess patient satisfaction with regular hospital food service and associated factors among adults admitted to in-patient departments of hospitals.

          Methods

          A hospital-based cross-sectional study design was conducted to interview 423 patients admitted to three randomly selected hospitals namely Wolaita Sodo University Referral and Teaching Hospital, Dubo St. Catholic Hospital and Sodo Christian Hospital. Participants were recruited based on probability proportional to the number of clients in each hospital. After data entry using EpiInfo v7.2.2.6, the data were exported to SPSS v23 software for further analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were undertaken to see the association between variables. Statistically significant variables were declared using an adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval.

          Result

          Among the total participants 33.6% (95%CI: [29.1, 38.3]) of patients were satisfied with regular hospital food services. Multivariate analysis revealed that residence (AOR = 2.16; 95%CI: [1.28, 3.63]), monthly income (AOR = 5.64; 95%CI: [2.30, 8.28]), flavour of meal, (AOR = 2.63; 95%CI: [1.34, 5.56]), and provision of easily chewable food (AOR = 7.50; 95%CI: [2.00, 12.82]) were influencing factors for satisfaction on hospital foodservices.

          Conclusion

          This research ascertained a low patient satisfaction with regular hospital meal service. The identified factors need to be addressed giving attention for each foodservice dimension to scale up the patient satisfaction with hospital food services.

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          Most cited references27

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          Malnutrition and its impact on cost of hospitalization, length of stay, readmission and 3-year mortality.

          The confounding effect of disease on the outcomes of malnutrition using diagnosis-related groups (DRG) has never been studied in a multidisciplinary setting. This study aims to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in a tertiary hospital in Singapore and its impact on hospitalization outcomes and costs, controlling for DRG. This prospective cohort study included a matched case control study. Subjective Global Assessment was used to assess the nutritional status on admission of 818 adults. Hospitalization outcomes over 3 years were adjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, and matched for DRG. Malnourished patients (29%) had longer hospital stays (6.9±7.3 days vs. 4.6±5.6 days, p<0.001) and were more likely to be readmitted within 15 days (adjusted relative risk=1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, p=0.025). Within a DRG, the mean difference between actual cost of hospitalization and the average cost for malnourished patients was greater than well-nourished patients (p=0.014). Mortality was higher in malnourished patients at 1 year (34% vs. 4.1 %), 2 years (42.6% vs. 6.7%) and 3 years (48.5% vs. 9.9%); p<0.001 for all. Overall, malnutrition was a significant predictor of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio=4.4, 95% CI 3.3-6.0, p<0.001). Malnutrition was evident in up to one third of the inpatients and led to poor hospitalization outcomes and survival as well as increased costs of care, even after matching for DRG. Strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition in the hospital and post-discharge are needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
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            Malnutrition and poor food intake are associated with prolonged hospital stay, frequent readmissions, and greater in-hospital mortality: results from the Nutrition Care Day Survey 2010.

            The Australasian Nutrition Care Day Survey (ANCDS) ascertained if malnutrition and poor food intake are independent risk factors for health-related outcomes in Australian and New Zealand hospital patients. Phase 1 recorded nutritional status (Subjective Global Assessment) and 24-h food intake (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% intake). Outcomes data (Phase 2) were collected 90-days post-Phase 1 and included length of hospital stay (LOS), readmissions and in-hospital mortality. Of 3122 participants (47% females, 65 ± 18 years) from 56 hospitals, 32% were malnourished and 23% consumed ≤ 25% of the offered food. Malnourished patients had greater median LOS (15 days vs. 10 days, p < 0.0001) and readmissions rates (36% vs. 30%, p = 0.001). Median LOS for patients consuming ≤ 25% of the food was higher than those consuming ≤ 50% (13 vs. 11 days, p < 0.0001). The odds of 90-day in-hospital mortality were twice greater for malnourished patients (CI: 1.09-3.34, p = 0.023) and those consuming ≤ 25% of the offered food (CI: 1.13-3.51, p = 0.017), respectively. The ANCDS establishes that malnutrition and poor food intake are independently associated with in-hospital mortality in the Australian and New Zealand acute care setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and NIPR. All rights reserved.
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              Determinants of patient satisfaction: a study among 39 hospitals in an in-patient setting in Germany.

              To identify key determinants of patient satisfaction. Data used were obtained through a self-administered, post-visit questionnaire by random sampling during the period of January 2009 to September 2009. Thirty-nine hospitals in Germany. A total of 8,428 patients. Global patient satisfaction was measured by a single item question. Attributes of medical aspects of care were measured using 12 items, performance of service using 3 items and different dimensions of patient expectations using 12 items. Medical aspects of care and performance of service items were entered into logistic regression analysis to identify determinants of patient satisfaction. The results of the analysis showed that there are 10 determinants of global patient satisfaction. The outcome of treatment was overall, the most salient predictor followed by nursing kindness as the second most important component. Items reflecting information receiving about the undergoing treatment do not have a major influence on patient satisfaction. The analysis identified key determinants that should be altered first in order to improve global patient satisfaction. The results also indicate that some aspects of the hospital stay are not seen as relevant by patients and therefore are unrelated to satisfaction ratings. The findings suggest that variables measuring patients' perceptions of care are more important determinants of global patient satisfaction in comparison to demographics and visit characteristics. Results of the present study have implications for health providers aiming at improving the service quality and quality of care.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: ValidationRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                2 March 2022
                2022
                : 17
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] World Vision, Health and Nutrition Coordinator, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                [2 ] School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
                [3 ] School of Midwifery, College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
                [4 ] Department of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ambo University, Ambo, Ethiopia
                [5 ] World Vision, Community Based Acute Malnutrition Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
                Universitat de Valencia, SPAIN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-20-36652
                10.1371/journal.pone.0264163
                8890636
                35235592
                bd02bfe3-927f-4739-b3d2-34965c9809c0
                © 2022 Teka et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 12
                Product
                Funding
                The author(s) received no specific funding for this work.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Health Care Facilities
                Hospitals
                People and Places
                Geographical Locations
                Africa
                Ethiopia
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Health Care Facilities
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Mathematical and Statistical Techniques
                Statistical Methods
                Regression Analysis
                Physical Sciences
                Mathematics
                Statistics
                Statistical Methods
                Regression Analysis
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Research Design
                Cross-Sectional Studies
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Medical Services
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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                Uncategorized

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