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      Hepatocyte Growth Factor Modulates H 2O 2-Induced Mesangial Cell Apoptosis through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1

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          Abstract

          Oxidative stress plays an important role in the induction of mesangial cell (MC) injury. In the present study, we evaluated the molecular mechanism involved in hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)-induced MC apoptosis. In addition, we examined the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-modulated, H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced MC injury. H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> promoted (p < 0.001) mouse MC (MMC) apoptosis. This effect of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> was associated with translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial to the cytosolic compartment. In addition, a caspase-9 inhibitor partially attenuated this effect of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. These findings suggest that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced MMC apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial pathway. HGF not only prevented H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced MMC apoptosis, but also inhibited H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondrial to the cytosolic compartment. HGF also promoted the expression of HO-1 by MMCs; interestingly, hemin inhibited (p < 0.001) H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced MMC apoptosis. On the other hand, zinc protoporphyrin inhibited the protective influence of HGF on H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced MMC apoptosis. These findings suggest that H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced apoptosis occurs through the mitochondrial pathway. HGF provides protection against H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-induced MMC apoptosis through induction of HO-1.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Heme protein-induced chronic renal inflammation: suppressive effect of induced heme oxygenase-1.

          Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme; its inducible isozyme, HO-1, protects against acute heme protein-induced nephrotoxicity and other forms of acute tissue injury. This study examines the induction of HO-1 in the kidney chronically inflamed by heme proteins and the functional significance of such an induction of HO-1. Studies were undertaken in a patient with chronic tubulointerstitial disease in the setting of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), in a rat model of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy caused by repetitive exposure to heme proteins, and in genetically engineered mice deficient in HO-1 (HO-1 -/-) in which hemoglobin was repetitively administered. The kidney in PNH evinces robust induction of HO-1 in renal tubules in the setting of chronic inflammation. The heme protein-enriched urine from this patient, but not urine from a healthy control subject, induced expression of HO-1 in renal tubular epithelial cells (LLC-PK1 cells). A similar induction of HO-1 and related findings are recapitulated in a rat model of chronic inflammation induced by repetitive exposure to heme proteins. Additionally, in the rat, the administration of heme proteins induces monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1). The functional significance of HO-1 so induced was uncovered in the HO-1 knockout mouse: Repeated administration of hemoglobin to HO-1 +/+ and HO-1 -/- mice led to intense interstitial cellular inflammation in HO-1 -/- mice accompanied by striking up-regulation of MCP-1 and activation of one of its stimulators, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). These findings were not observed in similarly treated HO-1 +/+ mice or in vehicle-treated HO-1 -/- and HO-1 +/+ mice. We conclude that up-regulation of HO-1 occurs in the kidney in humans and rats repetitively exposed to heme proteins. Such up-regulation represents an anti-inflammatory response since the genetic deficiency of HO-1 markedly increases activation of NF-kappaB, MCP-1 expression, and tubulointerstitial cellular inflammation.
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            Hepatocyte growth factor signalling stimulates hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activity in HepG2 hepatoma cells.

            Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a multifunctional cytokine of mesenchymal origin, activates the DNA binding of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in the HepG2 cell line: the activated complex contained the inducible alpha subunit. An increased expression of HIF-1alpha (mRNA and nuclear protein levels) was observed. To investigate the molecular basis of the HIF-1 response under this non-hypoxic condition, we evaluated first the expression of putative target genes. We found a time-dependent increase in steady-state mRNA levels of heme oxygenase and urokinase plasminogen activator at 4 h, followed by that of urokinase receptor at 10 h. The enhanced expression of these genes might confer the invasive phenotype, since HGF is a proliferative and scatter factor. Second, we examined some aspects of HIF-1 activity regulation in HGF-treated cells with the following findings: (i) the activation of HIF-1 DNA binding was prevented by proteasome blockade, probably because stabilization of the cytosolic alpha-subunit protein level is not sufficient to generate a functional form: also under these conditions nuclear protein level of HIF-1alpha did not increase; (ii) N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger, strongly decreased HIF-1 activation suggesting a role of reactive oxygen species in this process; (iii) the thiol reducing agent dithiothreitol was ineffective. Third, consistent with these data, N-acetylcysteine reduced the stimulatory effect of HGF on stress kinase activities, while p42/44 mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) was unmodified, suggesting an involvement of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK in HIF-1 activation. Finally, LY 294002 induced the blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), one of the principal transducers of HGF/Met receptor signalling, prevented the enhancement of HIF-1 DNA binding and JNK activity, but the inhibition of p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation with PD 98059 was ineffective. In conclusion, we suggest that HGF triggers a signal transduction cascade involving PI3K and ultimately activates HIF-1.
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              The cytokine hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor inhibits apoptosis and enhances DNA repair by a common mechanism involving signaling through phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase.

              Scatter factor (SF) [aka. hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)] (designated HGF/SF) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis. We recently reported that HGF/SF protects epithelial and carcinoma cells against cytotoxicity from DNA-damaging agents and that HGF/SF-mediated cytoprotection was associated with up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL in cells exposed to adriamycin. We now report that in addition to blocking apoptosis, HGF/SF markedly enhances the repair of DNA strand breaks caused by adriamycin or gamma radiation. Constitutive expression of Bcl-XL in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells not only simulated the HGF/SF-mediated chemoradioresistance, but also enhanced the repair of DNA strand breaks. The ability of HGF/SF to induce both chemoresistance and DNA repair was inhibited by wortmannin, suggesting that these activities of HGF/SF are due, in part, to a phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K) dependent signaling pathway. Consistent with this finding, HGF/SF induced the phosphorylation of c-Akt (protein kinase-B), a PI3K substrate implicated in apoptosis inhibition; and an expression vector encoding a dominant negative kinase inactive Akt partially but significantly inhibited HGF/SF-mediated cell protection and DNA repair. These findings suggest that HGF/SF activates a cell survival and DNA repair pathway that involves signaling through PI3K and c-Akt and stabilization of the expression of Bcl-XL; and they implicate Bcl-XL in the DNA repair process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEP
                Nephron Physiol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2137
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2137
                2005
                December 2005
                14 November 2005
                : 101
                : 4
                : p92-p98
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, N.Y., USA
                Article
                87936 Nephron Physiol 2005;101:p92–p98
                10.1159/000087936
                16131815
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/87936
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