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      Silicone oil in vitreoretinal surgery: indications, complications, new developments and alternative long-term tamponade agents

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          Most cited references 135

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          Complications associated with the use of silicone oil in 150 eyes after retina-vitreous surgery.

          Complicated retinal detachments (RDs) were successfully managed in 150 eyes of 170 consecutive patients by one surgeon (JLF) using silicone oil in conjunction with modern pars plana vitrectomy. Long-term postoperative complications were observed between 6 months and 5 years of follow-up. Cataracts developed in all phakic eyes and all corneas with oil-endothelial touch showed band keratopathy within 6 months. Recurrent detachments were noted in 22% of eyes during silicone oil tamponade and occurred in 13% of eyes after the oil had been removed. Other complications associated with the use of oil for vitreous surgery included pupillary block glaucoma (3%), closure of the inferior iridectomy (14%), fibrous epiretinal and subretinal proliferations (15%), pain (5%), and subconjunctival deposits of oil (3%). Without exception, within a period of 1 year the intraocular silicone oil showed some degree of emulsification, suggesting that the physicochemical characteristics of the oil injected may be an important variable in long-term complications.
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            The use of liquid silicone in retinal detachment surgery.

             P CIBIS,  S Canaan,  E Okun (1962)
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              Vitreous substitutes: a comprehensive review.

              Vitreoretinal disorders constitute a significant portion of treatable ocular disease. Advances in vitreoretinal surgery have included the development and characterization of suitable substitutes for the vitreous. Air, balanced salt solutions, perfluorocarbons, expansile gases, and silicone oil serve integral roles in modern vitreoretinal surgery. Vitreous substitutes vary widely in their properties, serve different clinical functions, and present different shortcomings. Permanent vitreous replacement has been attempted with collagen, hyaluronic acid, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and natural hydrogel polymers. None, however, have proven to be clinically viable. A long-term vitreous substitute remains to be found, and recent research suggests promise in the area of synthetic polymers. Here we review the currently available vitreous substitutes, as well those in the experimental phase. We classify these compounds based on their functionality, composition, and properties. We also discuss the clinical use, advantages, and shortcomings of the various substitutes. In addition we define the ideal vitreous substitute and highlight the need for a permanent substitute with long-term viability and compatibility. Finally, we attempt to define the future role of biomaterials research and the various functions they may serve in the area of vitreous substitutes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                AOS
                Acta Ophthalmologica
                Acta Ophthalmol.
                Wiley
                1755375X
                September 15 2020
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Ruian Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital; Ruian China
                [2 ]Department of Ophthalmology; University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR China
                [3 ]Department of Eye and Vision Science; University of Liverpool; Liverpool UK
                [4 ]St. Paul's Eye Unit; The Royal Liverpool University Hospital; Liverpool UK
                [5 ]Newcastle University; Newcastle Upon Tyne UK
                [6 ]Sunderland Eye Infirmary; Sunderland UK
                Article
                10.1111/aos.14604
                © 2020

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