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      Tracing the introduction history of the tulip that went wild ( Tulipa sylvestris) in sixteenth-century Europe

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          Abstract

          Tulipa sylvestris, commonly called the “wild tulip”, was introduced from the Mediterranean to northern Europe in the sixteenth century and became widely naturalized. Research has focused on tulips that came from the Ottoman Empire, but the introduction path of this native European, early ornamental tulip is unclear, and so is its taxonomic status: three subspecies are provisionally accepted, sometimes treated as species. Here we elucidate the history of introduction of T. sylvestris and discuss its taxonomy based on our historical findings. The first bulbs came from Bologna (northern Italy) and Montpellier (southern France) in the 1550–1570 s. Several renowned botanists were involved in their introduction, namely Gessner, Wieland, Aldrovandi, De Lobel, Clusius, and Dodoens. There were various introduction routes, including one from Spain which was apparently unsuccessful. The strong sixteenth-century Flemish botanical network facilitated the introduction and naturalization of T. sylvestris across Europe. Based on the latest tulip taxonomy, the diploid subspecies australis is native in the Mediterranean, and the tetraploid sylvestris is naturalized over Europe, but our historical findings show that both sylvestris and australis were introduced to northern Europe. This underlines the need to reconsider the taxonomic status of T. sylvestris, highlighting the importance of botanical history in understanding the complex taxonomy of naturalized cultivated plants.

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          The systematic value of nuclear genome size for “all” species of Tulipa L. (Liliaceae)

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            Tiptoe through the tulips - cultural history, molecular phylogenetics and classification ofTulipa(Liliaceae)

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              Breaking the silence of the 500-year-old smiling garden of everlasting flowers: The En Tibi book herbarium

              We reveal the enigmatic origin of one of the earliest surviving botanical collections. The 16th-century Italian En Tibi herbarium is a large, luxurious book with c. 500 dried plants, made in the Renaissance scholarly circles that developed botany as a distinct discipline. Its Latin inscription, translated as “Here for you a smiling garden of everlasting flowers”, suggests that this herbarium was a gift for a patron of the emerging botanical science. We follow an integrative approach that includes a botanical similarity estimation of the En Tibi with contemporary herbaria (Aldrovandi, Cesalpino, “Cibo”, Merini, Estense) and analysis of the book’s watermark, paper, binding, handwriting, Latin inscription and the morphology and DNA of hairs mounted under specimens. Rejecting the previous origin hypothesis (Ferrara, 1542–1544), we show that the En Tibi was made in Bologna around 1558. We attribute the En Tibi herbarium to Francesco Petrollini, a neglected 16th-century botanist, to whom also belongs, as clarified herein, the controversial “Erbario Cibo” kept in Rome. The En Tibi was probably a work on commission for Petrollini, who provided the plant material for the book. Other people were apparently involved in the compilation and offering of this precious gift to a yet unknown person, possibly the Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand I. The En Tibi herbarium is a Renaissance masterpiece of art and science, representing the quest for truth in herbal medicine and botany. Our multidisciplinary approach can serve as a guideline for deciphering other anonymous herbaria, kept safely “hidden” in treasure rooms of universities, libraries and museums.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anastasia.stefanaki@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                13 June 2022
                13 June 2022
                2022
                : 12
                : 9786
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.4818.5, ISNI 0000 0001 0791 5666, Biosystematics Group, , Wageningen University, ; Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
                [2 ]GRID grid.425948.6, ISNI 0000 0001 2159 802X, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, ; PO Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
                [3 ]GRID grid.8379.5, ISNI 0000 0001 1958 8658, Institute of the History of Medicine, , Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, ; Oberer Neubergweg 10a, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
                [4 ]GRID grid.5132.5, ISNI 0000 0001 2312 1970, Institute of Biology, Clusius Chair of History of Botany and Gardens, , Leiden University, ; Sylviusweg 72, 2333 BE Leiden, The Netherlands
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6393-9416
                Article
                13378
                10.1038/s41598-022-13378-9
                9192774
                35697708
                bd08f591-b751-48ce-8005-aa7b372768d4
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 29 November 2021
                : 10 May 2022
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004890, Wageningen University and Research;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100013345, Naturalis Biodiversity Center;
                Funded by: Willem van Riemsdijk
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Uncategorized
                plant sciences,plant domestication
                Uncategorized
                plant sciences, plant domestication

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