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      Delayed occurrence of an accelerated idioventricular rhythm with alternating bundle branch block after myocardial infarction as predictor of sudden cardiac arrest: a case report

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          Abstract

          Background

          Accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR) is known as reperfusion arrhythmia in the setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In healthy individuals, it is usually considered to be benign. Alternating bundle branch block (ABBB) often progresses to complete atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. We report a case of delayed appearance of AIVR following myocardial infarction (MI) in combination with ABBB as precursor of sudden cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF).

          Case summary

          A 62-year-old male with pre-existing left bundle branch block (LBBB) was admitted with an acute non-ST segment elevation MI. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a subtotal proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis. Before and after PCI the electrocardiogram (ECG) demonstrated sinus rhythm with LBBB. The patient was discharged 5 days after PCI, left ventricular function at this time was moderately reduced (ejection fraction of 40%). After another 5 days, the patient was admitted for elective cardiac rehabilitation. At this time, the ECG demonstrated an AIVR with right bundle branch block morphology. Due to ABBB, the patient was scheduled for permanent pacemaker implantation. Before pacemaker implantation could take place, the patient developed a sudden cardiac arrest due to VF and was successfully resuscitated. A follow-up coronary angiography revealed no novel lesions. A cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator was implanted for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death.

          Discussion

          Delayed occurrence of AIVR in combination with ABBB following AMI could be a predictor of sudden cardiac death. These patients are probably at high risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias.

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          Most cited references 16

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          2017 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation

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            2013 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force on cardiac pacing and resynchronization therapy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA).

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              The incidence of bradyarrhythmias and clinical bradyarrhythmic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial: results of the continuous electrocardiographic assessment substudy.

              The aim of this study was to determine whether ticagrelor increased the risk of ventricular pauses compared with clopidogrel and whether these pauses were associated with any clinical bradycardic events in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. Ticagrelor, an oral reversibly binding P2Y(12) inhibitor, provides more potent and consistent inhibition of platelet aggregation than clopidogrel but in a phase II study was associated with increased risk for ventricular pauses. A prospective continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) assessment was therefore performed within the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) study comparing ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes. Patients in the cECG assessment had planned 7-day cECG recording initiated at the time of randomization (week 1), which was within 24 h of symptom onset, and then repeated at 1 month after randomization during the convalescent phase. The principal safety endpoint was the incidence of ventricular pauses lasting at least 3 s. Investigators also reported symptomatic bradycardic adverse events during the entire study duration (median 277 days). A total of 2,908 patients were included in the cECG assessment, of whom 2,866 (98.5%) had week 1 recordings, 1,991 (68.4%) had 1-month recordings, and 1,949 (67.0%) had both. During the first week after randomization, ventricular pauses ≥3 s occurred more frequently in patients receiving ticagrelor than clopidogrel (84 [5.8%] vs. 51 [3.6%]; relative risk: 1.61; p = 0.006). At 1 month, pauses ≥3 s occurred overall less frequently and were similar between treatments (2.1% vs. 1.7%). Most were ventricular pauses, and the greatest excess associated with ticagrelor were asymptomatic, sinoatrial nodal in origin (66%), and nocturnal. There were no differences between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the incidence of clinically reported bradycardic adverse events, including syncope, pacemaker placement, and cardiac arrest. In the PLATO cECG assessment, more patients treated with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel had ventricular pauses, which were predominantly asymptomatic, sinoatrial nodal in origin, and nocturnal and occurred most frequently in the acute phase of acute coronary syndromes. There were no apparent clinical consequences related to the excess in ventricular pauses in patients assigned to ticagrelor. (A Comparison of AZD6140 and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872). Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Handling Editor
                Role: Editor
                Role: Editor
                Role: Editor
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                Eur Heart J Case Rep
                Eur Heart J Case Rep
                ehjcr
                European Heart Journal: Case Reports
                Oxford University Press
                2514-2119
                December 2020
                17 November 2020
                17 November 2020
                : 4
                : 6
                : 1-7
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, Schuechtermann Clinic, Heart Center Osnabrueck-Bad Rothenfelde , Ulmenallee 5-11, D-49214 Bad Rothenfelde, Germany
                Author notes
                Corresponding author. Tel: +49 5424 641 30107, Fax: +49 5424 641 598, Email: mbettin@ 123456schuechtermann-klinik.de
                Article
                ytaa378
                10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa378
                7793207
                bd12124d-e2d1-40e8-8024-284ab4573ba0
                © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Product
                Categories
                Case Reports
                Arrhythmias / Electrophysiology
                AcademicSubjects/MED00200

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