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      Establishment ofFUT8 knockout Chinese hamster ovary cells: An ideal host cell line for producing completely defucosylated antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

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          Abstract

          To generate industrially applicable new host cell lines for antibody production with optimizing antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) we disrupted both FUT8 alleles in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)/DG44 cell line by sequential homologous recombination. FUT8 encodes an alpha-1,6-fucosyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in an alpha-1,6 linkage. FUT8(-/-) cell lines have morphology and growth kinetics similar to those of the parent, and produce completely defucosylated recombinant antibodies. FUT8(-/-)-produced chimeric anti-CD20 IgG1 shows the same level of antigen-binding activity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) as the FUT8(+/+)-produced, comparable antibody, Rituxan. In contrast, FUT8(-/-)-produced anti-CD20 IgG1 strongly binds to human Fcgamma-receptor IIIa (FcgammaRIIIa) and dramatically enhances ADCC to approximately 100-fold that of Rituxan. Our results demonstrate that FUT8(-/-) cells are ideal host cell lines to stably produce completely defucosylated high-ADCC antibodies with fixed quality and efficacy for therapeutic use.

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          Lack of fucose on human IgG1 N-linked oligosaccharide improves binding to human Fcgamma RIII and antibody-dependent cellular toxicity.

          Lec13 cells, a variant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, were used to produce human IgG1 that were deficient in fucose attached to the Asn(297)-linked carbohydrate but were otherwise similar to that found in IgG1 produced in normal Chinese hamster ovary cell lines and from human serum. Lack of fucose on the IgG1 had no effect on binding to human FcgammaRI, C1q, or the neonatal Fc receptor. Although no change in affinity was found for the His(131) polymorphic form of human FcgammaRIIA, a slight improvement in binding was evident for FcgammaRIIB and the Arg(131) FcgammaRIIA polymorphic form. In contrast, binding of the fucose-deficient IgG1 to human FcgammaRIIIA was improved up to 50-fold. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays using purified peripheral blood monocytes or natural killer cells from several donors showed enhanced cytotoxicity, especially evident at lower antibody concentrations. When combined with an IgG1 Fc protein variant that exhibited enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, the lack of fucose was synergistic.
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            Inhibitory Fc receptors modulate in vivo cytotoxicity against tumor targets.

            Inhibitory receptors have been proposed to modulate the in vivo cytotoxic response against tumor targets for both spontaneous and antibody-dependent pathways. Using a variety of syngenic and xenograft models, we demonstrate here that the inhibitory FcgammaRIIB molecule is a potent regulator of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vivo, modulating the activity of FcgammaRIII on effector cells. Although many mechanisms have been proposed to account for the anti-tumor activities of therapeutic antibodies, including extended half-life, blockade of signaling pathways, activation of apoptosis and effector-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we show here that engagement of Fcgamma receptors on effector cells is a dominant component of the in vivo activity of antibodies against tumors. Mouse monoclonal antibodies, as well as the humanized, clinically effective therapeutic agents trastuzumab (Herceptin(R)) and rituximab (Rituxan(R)), engaged both activation (FcgammaRIII) and inhibitory (FcgammaRIIB) antibody receptors on myeloid cells, thus modulating their cytotoxic potential. Mice deficient in FcgammaRIIB showed much more antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; in contrast, mice deficient in activating Fc receptors as well as antibodies engineered to disrupt Fc binding to those receptors were unable to arrest tumor growth in vivo. These results demonstrate that Fc-receptor-dependent mechanisms contribute substantially to the action of cytotoxic antibodies against tumors and indicate that an optimal antibody against tumors would bind preferentially to activation Fc receptors and minimally to the inhibitory partner FcgammaRIIB.
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              Structural analysis of human IgG-Fc glycoforms reveals a correlation between glycosylation and structural integrity.

              Antibodies may be viewed as adaptor molecules that provide a link between humoral and cellular defence mechanisms. Thus, when antigen-specific IgG antibodies form antigen/antibody immune complexes the effectively aggregated IgG can activate a wide range of effector systems. Multiple effector mechanisms result from cellular activation mediated through a family of IgG-Fc receptors differentially expressed on leucocytes. It is established that glycosylation of IgG-Fc is essential for recognition and activation of these ligands. IgG antibodies predominate in human serum and most therapeutic antibodies are of the IgG class. The IgG-Fc is a homodimer of N-linked glycopeptide chains comprised of two immunoglobulin domains (Cgamma2, Cgamma3) that dimerise via inter-heavy chain disulphide bridges at the N-terminal region and non-covalent interactions between the C-terminal Cgamma3 domains. The overall shape of the IgG-Fc is similar to that of a "horseshoe" with a majority of the internal space filled by the oligosaccharide chains, only attached through asparagine residues 297.To investigate the influence of individual sugar (monosaccharide) residues of the oligosaccharide on the structure and function of IgG-Fc we have compared the structure of "wild-type" glycosylated IgG1-Fc with that of four glycoforms bearing consecutively truncated oligosaccharides. Removal of terminal N-acetylglucosamine as well as mannose sugar residues resulted in the largest conformational changes in both the oligosaccharide and in the polypeptide loop containing the N-glycosylation site. The observed conformational changes in the Cgamma2 domain affect the interface between IgG-Fc fragments and FcgammaRs. Furthermore, we observed that the removal of sugar residues permits the mutual approach of Cgamma2 domains resulting in the generation of a "closed" conformation; in contrast to the "open" conformation which was observed for the fully galactosylated IgG-Fc, which may be optimal for FcgammaR binding. These data provide a structural rationale for the previously observed modulation of effector activities reported for this series of proteins.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biotechnology and Bioengineering
                Biotechnol. Bioeng.
                Wiley
                0006-3592
                1097-0290
                September 05 2004
                September 05 2004
                2004
                : 87
                : 5
                : 614-622
                Article
                10.1002/bit.20151
                15352059
                bd1fffd1-d71b-4a0d-a773-c2ed991a0b8a
                © 2004

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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