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      Diapedesis of Leukocytes: Antisense Oligonucleotides for Rescue

      ,

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Adhesion molecules, Acute renal failure, Endothelium, Delayed graft function

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          Abstract

          Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an acute inflammatory process during which leukocytes are intimately involved. In this review, we summarize the current data on the leukocyte cell adhesion cascade in ischemia-reperfusion injury, focus upon studies which have demonstrated specific cell adhesion molecule interactions which mediate the leukocyte involvement in ischemia-reperfusion injury, and suggest future avenues of therapeutic interventions. The increased adhesion between activated vascular endothelium and peripheral blood leukocytes is central to the structural and the functional impairment in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Several families of adhesion molecules, namely the selectins, the intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), and the integrins expressed either on the endothelium or on the leukocytes, are involved the cascade of events. Sequential and overlapping cellular interactions between the members of the three gene families of adhesion receptors result in adhesion of the leukocytes to the endothelium and extravasation at the site of ischemia. The functional importance of ICAM-1 and its β<sub>2</sub> integrin ligands in ischemia-reperfusion of the kidney has been demonstrated by monoclonal antibody blockade studies, in knockout mice and by treatment with antisense oligodeoxynulceotides (ODN). We have shown that antisense ODN for ICAM-1 protected the kidney against ischemic renal failure. In addition, in transplanted kidneys, ICAM-1 inhibition by antisense ODN ameliorates ischemia-reperfusion injury and prevents delayed graft function. Recent developments in antisense ODN technology make this a promising therapeutic approach, and antisense ODN treatment of donors or donor organs for ICAM-1 may be useful for the prevention of reperfusion injury in human renal transplantation and could influence acute and chronic graft function.

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          Most cited references 11

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          A cell adhesion molecule, ICAM-1, is the major surface receptor for rhinoviruses.

          Rhinoviruses, which cause common colds, possess over 100 serotypes, 90% of which (the major group) share a single receptor. Lymphocyte function associated molecule 1 (LFA-1) mediates leukocyte adhesion to a wide variety of cell types by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We demonstrate identity between the receptor for the major group of rhinoviruses and ICAM-1. A major group rhinovirus binds specifically to purified ICAM-1 and to ICAM-1 expressed on transfected COS cells, and binding is blocked by three ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that block ICAM-1-LFA-1 interaction, but not by an ICAM-1 MAb that does not block ICAM-1-LFA-1 interaction. This suggests that the ICAM-1 contact site(s) for LFA-1 and rhinoviruses is proximal or identical. In addition, ICAM-1 MAb block the cytopathic effect in HeLa cells mediated by representative major but not minor group rhinoviruses. ICAM-1 is induced by soluble mediators of inflammation, suggesting that the host immune response to rhinovirus may facilitate spread to uninfected cells.
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            Purified intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1).

             S Marlin,  T. Springer (1987)
            Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) is a leukocyte cell surface glycoprotein that promotes intercellular adhesion in immunological and inflammatory reactions. It is an alpha beta complex that is structurally related to receptors for extracellular matrix components, and thus belongs to the integrin family. ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) is a distinct cell surface glycoprotein. Its broad distribution, regulated expression in inflammation, and involvement in LFA-1-dependent cell-cell adhesion have suggested that ICAM-1 may be a ligand for LFA-1. We have purified ICAM-1 and incorporated it into artificial supported lipid membranes. LFA-1+ but not LFA-1- cells bound to ICAM-1 in the artificial membranes, and the binding could be specifically inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 treatment of the membranes or by anti-LFA-1 treatment of the cells. The cell binding to ICAM-1 required metabolic energy production, an intact cytoskeleton, and the presence of Mg2+ and was temperature dependent, characteristics of LFA-1- and ICAM-1-dependent cell-cell adhesion.
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              The arrangement of the immunoglobulin-like domains of ICAM-1 and the binding sites for LFA-1 and rhinovirus.

              Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, CD54) binds to the integrin LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), promoting cell adhesion in immune and inflammatory reactions. ICAM-1 is also subverted as a receptor by the major group of rhinoviruses. Electron micrographs show that ICAM-1 is a bent rod, 18.7 nm long, suggesting a model in which the five immunoglobulin-like domains are oriented head to tail at a small angle to the rod axis. ICAM-1 sequences important to binding LFA-1, rhinovirus, and four monoclonal antibodies were identified through the characterization of chimeric ICAM-1 molecules and mutants. The amino-terminal two immunoglobulin-like domains of ICAM-1 appear to interact conformationally. Domain 1 of ICAM-1 contains the primary site of contact for both LFA-1 and rhinovirus; the presence of domains 3-5 markedly affects the accessibility of the binding site for rhinovirus and less so for LFA-1. The binding sites appear to be distinct but overlapping; rhinovirus binding also differs from LFA-1 binding in its lack of divalent cation dependence. Our analysis suggests that rhinoviruses mimic LFA-1 in binding to the most membrane-distal, and thus most accessible, site of ICAM-1.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6886-9
                978-3-318-00442-7
                1660-2129
                1999
                April 1999
                23 April 1999
                : 7
                : 2
                : 185-192
                Affiliations
                Franz Volhard Clinic at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Virchow Klinikum-Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
                Article
                20599 Exp Nephrol 1999;7:185–192
                10.1159/000020599
                10213872
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                References: 68, Pages: 8
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/20599
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