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      Urinary Metabolic Profile of Patients with Transfusion-Dependent β-Thalassemia Major Undergoing Deferasirox Therapy

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Renal dysfunction is a frequent complication in patients suffering from β-thalassemia major (β-TM). The aim of this study was to analyze the renal function and urine metabolomic profile of β-TM patients undergoing transfusions and deferasirox (DFX) therapy, in order to better characterize and shed light on the pathogenesis of renal disease in this setting. Methods and Subjects: 40 patients affected by β-TM treated with DFX and 35 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Renal function was assessed. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated with CKD-EPI and Schwartz formula for adults and children, respectively. Renal tubular function and maximal urine concentration ability were tested. Urine specimens were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify the urinary metabolite profiles. Results: The study of renal function in β-TM patients revealed normal estimated (e)GFR mean values and the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was <30 mg/g. The analysis of tubular function showed normal basal plasma electrolyte levels; 60% of patients presented hypercalciuria and many subjects showed defective urine concentration. Several amino acids, N-methyl compounds, and organic acids were overexcreted in the urine of thalassemic patients compared with controls. Discussion: The major finding of this work is that β-TM patients and controls exhibit different concentrations of some metabolites in the urine. Early recognition of urinary abnormalities may be useful to detect and prevent kidney damage.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Survival and complications in patients with thalassemia major treated with transfusion and deferoxamine.

          Seven Italian centers reported data on survival, causes of death and appearance of complications in patients with thalassemia major. The interactions between gender, birth cohort, complications, and ferritin on survival and complications were analyzed. Survival after the first decade was studied for 977 patients born since 1960 whereas survival since birth and complication appearance was studied for the 720 patients born after 1970. Better survival was demonstrated for patients born in more recent years (p<0.00005) and for females (p=0.0003); 68% of the patients are alive at the age of 35 years. In the entire population 67% of the deaths were due to heart disease. There was a significant association between birth cohort and complication-free survival (p<0.0005). The prevalence of complications was: heart failure 6.8%, arrhythmia 5.7%, hypogonadism 54.7%, hypothyroidism 10.8%, diabetes 6.4%, HIV infection 1.7%, and thrombosis 1.1%. Lower ferritin levels were associated with a lower probability of heart failure (hazard ratio =3.35, p<0.005) and with prolonged survival (hazard ratio = 2.45, p<0.005), using a cut-off as low as 1,000 ng/mL. Survival and complication-free survival of patients with thalassemia major continue to improve, especially for female patients born shortly before or after the availability of iron chelation.
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            Summary of KDIGO 2012 CKD Guideline: behind the scenes, need for guidance, and a framework for moving forward.

            The 2012 KDIGO Guideline for CKD evaluation, classification, and management has updated the original 2002 KDOQI Guidelines, using newer data and addressing issues raised over the last decade concerning definitions and assessment. This review highlights the key aspects of the CKD guideline, and describes the rationale for specific wording and the scope of the document. A précis of key concepts in each of the five sections of the guideline is presented. The guideline document is intended for general practitioners and nephrologists, and covers CKD evaluation, classification, and management for both adults and children. Throughout the guideline, we have attempted to overtly address areas of controversy or non-consensus, international relevance, and impact on practice and public policy.
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              Targeted metabolomics in the expanded newborn screening for inborn errors of metabolism.

              Inborn errors of metabolism are genetic disorders due to impaired activity of enzymes, transporters, or cofactors resulting in accumulation of abnormal metabolites proximal to the metabolic block, lack of essential products or accumulation of by-products. Many of these disorders have serious clinical consequences for affected neonates, and an early diagnosis allows presymptomatic treatment which can prevent severe permanent sequelae and in some cases death. Expanded newborn screening for these diseases is a promising field of targeted metabolomics. Here we report the application, between 2007 and 2014, of this approach to the identification of newborns in southern Italy at risk of developing a potentially fatal disease. The analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 24 affected newborns among 45,466 infants evaluated between 48 and 72 hours of life (overall incidence: 1 : 1894). Diagnoses of newborns with elevated metabolites were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, biochemical studies, and genetic analysis. Five infants were diagnosed with medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 with methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria type CblC, 2 with isolated methylmalonic acidemia, 1 with propionic acidemia, 1 with isovaleric academia, 1 with isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, 1 with beta ketothiolase deficiency, 1 with short branched chain amino acid deficiency, 1 with 3-methlycrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency, 1 with formimino-transferase cyclodeaminase deficiency, and 1 with cystathionine-beta-synthase deficiency. Seven cases of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency and 1 case of maternal carnitine uptake deficiency were detected. This study supports the widespread application of metabolomic-based newborn screening for these genetic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2020
                May 2020
                20 May 2020
                : 45
                : 3
                : 455-466
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Naples, Italy
                bDepartment of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), Italy
                cRare Blood Cell Disease Unit, “Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples, Italy
                dBiogem Scarl, Ariano Irpino, Italy
                Author notes
                *Zacchia Miriam, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Sergio Pansini 5, IT–80131 Naples (Italy), miriam.zacchia@unicampania.it, Beneduci Amerigo, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, Cubo 15D, IT–87036 Arcavacata di rende (CS) (Italy), amerigo.beneduci@unical.it
                Article
                507369 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:455–466
                10.1159/000507369
                32434200
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Research Article

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