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      Antioxidative and Anticanceric Activities of Magnolia ( Magnolia denudata) Flower Petal Extract Fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614

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          Abstract

          In this study, the effects of magnolia ( Magnolia ( M.) denudata) extract fermentation in increasing the extract’s antioxidative and anticancer activities were investigated. Magnolia was fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method and the antioxidative effects by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. Anticancer activity against cancer and normal cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Total phenolic content during fermentation increased from 38.1 to 47.0 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of solid matter. The radical scavenging activity was 91.4% after 72 h fermentation. Fermented magnolia’s antioxidative effect was threefold higher than that of the (non-fermented) control. Fermentation (48 h) increased anticanceric activity against AGS, LoVo, and MCF-7 cancer cells 1.29- to 1.36-fold compared with that of the control, but did not affect MRC-5 (normal) cells, suggesting that fermented magnolia could be used as a natural antioxidative and anticancer agent.

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          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria play an important role in apoptosis induction under both physiologic and pathologic conditions. Interestingly, mitochondria are both source and target of ROS. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria, that triggers caspase activation, appears to be largely mediated by direct or indirect ROS action. On the other hand, ROS have also anti-apoptotic effects. This review focuses on the role of ROS in the regulation of apoptosis, especially in inflammatory cells.
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            This study provides an overview of the factors that influence the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity and the mechanisms that augment antioxidative activities in fermented plant-based foods. The ability of fermentation to improve antioxidant activity is primarily due to an increase in the amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids during fermentation, which is the result of a microbial hydrolysis reaction. Moreover, fermentation induces the structural breakdown of plant cell walls, leading to the liberation or synthesis of various antioxidant compounds. These antioxidant compounds can act as free radical terminators, metal chelators, singlet oxygen quenchers, or hydrogen donors to radicals. The production of protease, α-amylase and some other enzymes can be influenced by fermentation that may have metal ion chelation activity. Because the mechanisms that affect antioxidant activity during fermentation are extremely varied, further investigation is needed to establish the precise mechanisms for these processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Most reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in cells by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Mitochondrial ROS production is modulated largely by the rate of electron flow through respiratory chain complexes. Recently, it has become clear that under hypoxic conditions, the mitochondrial respiratory chain also produces nitric oxide (NO), which can generate other reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although excess ROS and RNS can lead to oxidative and nitrosative stress, moderate to low levels of both function in cellular signaling pathways. Especially important are the roles of these mitochondrially generated free radicals in hypoxic signaling pathways, which have important implications for cancer, inflammation and a variety of other diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                03 July 2015
                July 2015
                : 20
                : 7
                : 12154-12165
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea; E-Mails: dms2353@ 123456naver.com (E.-H.P.); zmzm852@ 123456naver.com (H.-S.K.); insomnia@ 123456daum.net (S.J.E.)
                [2 ]Bio/Molecular Informatics Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea; E-Mail: richard44@ 123456hanmail.net
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: hdpaik@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-2049-6011; Fax: +82-2-455-3082.
                Article
                molecules-20-12154
                10.3390/molecules200712154
                6331971
                26151113
                bd36e8fc-be62-4f8f-b0bc-d49edc4a86ed
                © 2015 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 14 May 2015
                : 30 June 2015
                Categories
                Article

                flavonoid,pediococcus acidilactici,magnolia denudate,antioxidative effect,anticanceric activity

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