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      Quinoxaline-substituted chalcones as new inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2: polyspecificity at B-ring position

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          Abstract

          A series of chalcones substituted by a quinoxaline unit at the B-ring were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of breast cancer resistance protein-mediated mitoxantrone efflux. These compounds appeared more efficient than analogs containing other B-ring substituents such as 2-naphthyl or 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl while an intermediate inhibitory activity was obtained with a 1-naphthyl group. In all cases, two or three methoxy groups had to be present on the phenyl A-ring to produce a maximal inhibition. Molecular modeling indicated both electrostatic and steric positive contributions. A higher potency was observed when the 2-naphthyl or 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl group was shifted to the A-ring and methoxy substituents were shifted to the phenyl B-ring, indicating preferences among polyspecificity of inhibition.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Natural products in drug discovery.

          Natural products have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs. Over a 100 new products are in clinical development, particularly as anti-cancer agents and anti-infectives. Application of molecular biological techniques is increasing the availability of novel compounds that can be conveniently produced in bacteria or yeasts, and combinatorial chemistry approaches are being based on natural product scaffolds to create screening libraries that closely resemble drug-like compounds. Various screening approaches are being developed to improve the ease with which natural products can be used in drug discovery campaigns, and data mining and virtual screening techniques are also being applied to databases of natural products. It is hoped that the more efficient and effective application of natural products will improve the drug discovery process.
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            A multidrug resistance transporter from human MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

            MCF-7/AdrVp is a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer subline that displays an ATP-dependent reduction in the intracellular accumulation of anthracycline anticancer drugs in the absence of overexpression of known multidrug resistance transporters such as P glycoprotein or the multidrug resistance protein. RNA fingerprinting led to the identification of a 2.4-kb mRNA that is overexpressed in MCF-7/AdrVp cells relative to parental MCF-7 cells. The mRNA encodes a 655-aa [corrected] member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transporters that we term breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Enforced expression of the full-length BCRP cDNA in MCF-7 breast cancer cells confers resistance to mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, and daunorubicin, reduces daunorubicin accumulation and retention, and causes an ATP-dependent enhancement of the efflux of rhodamine 123 in the cloned transfected cells. BCRP is a xenobiotic transporter that appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of MCF-7/AdrVp human breast cancer cells.
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              Overexpression of a transporter gene in a multidrug-resistant human lung cancer cell line.

              The doxorubicin-selected lung cancer cell line H69AR is resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents. However, like most tumor samples from individuals with this disease, it does not overexpress P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transport protein that is dependent on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is associated with multidrug resistance. Complementary DNA (cDNA) clones corresponding to messenger RNAs (mRNAs) overexpressed in H69AR cells were isolated. One cDNA hybridized to an mRNA of 7.8 to 8.2 kilobases that was 100- to 200-fold more expressed in H69AR cells relative to drug-sensitive parental H69 cells. Overexpression was associated with amplification of the cognate gene located on chromosome 16 at band p13.1. Reversion to drug sensitivity was associated with loss of gene amplification and a marked decrease in mRNA expression. The mRNA encodes a member of the ATP-binding cassette transmembrane transporter superfamily.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                27 May 2014
                : 8
                : 609-619
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Equipe Labellisée Ligue 2013, Université Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Lyon, France
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
                [3 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil
                [4 ]Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil
                [5 ]Bioinformatique structures et interactions, Université Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, Lyon, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Attilio Di Pietro, Equipe Labellisée Ligue 2013, BMSSI UMR 5086 CNRS/Université Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, 7 Passage du Vercors, 69367 Lyon cedex 07, France, Tel +33 4 7272 2629, Fax +33 4 7272 2629, Email a.dipietro@ 123456ibcp.fr

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-8-609
                10.2147/DDDT.S56625
                4043709
                © 2014 Winter et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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