Guochun Jiang 1 , Erica A. Mendes 1 , Philipp Kaiser 2 , 3 , Daniel P. Wong 3 , 4 , Yuyang Tang 5 , Ivy Cai 1 , Anne Fenton 1 , Gregory P. Melcher 6 , James E. K. Hildreth 5 , George R. Thompson 1 , 6 , Joseph K. Wong 2 , Satya Dandekar 1 , 6 , *
30 July 2015
Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective in suppressing HIV replication, it fails to eradicate the virus from HIV-infected individuals. Stable latent HIV reservoirs are rapidly established early after HIV infection. Therefore, effective strategies for eradication of the HIV reservoirs are urgently needed. We report that ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), the only active component in a previously FDA approved drug (PICATO) for the topical treatment of precancerous actinic keratosis, can effectively reactivate latent HIV in vitro and ex vivo with relatively low cellular toxicity. Biochemical analysis showed that PEP005 reactivated latent HIV through the induction of the pS643/S676-PKCδ/θ-IκBα/ε-NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, PEP005 alone was sufficient to induce expression of fully elongated and processed HIV RNAs in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV infected individuals receiving suppressive ART. Furthermore, PEP005 and the P-TEFb agonist, JQ1, exhibited synergism in reactivation of latent HIV with a combined effect that is 7.5-fold higher than the effect of PEP005 alone. Conversely, PEP005 suppressed HIV infection of primary CD4+ T cells through down-modulation of cell surface expression of HIV co-receptors. This anti-cancer compound is a potential candidate for advancing HIV eradication strategies.
Stable latent viral reservoirs in HIV infected individuals are rapidly reactivated following the interruption of anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Despite an early initiation of ART, viral reservoirs are established and persist as demonstrated in the case of the Mississippi baby and from recent studies of the SIV model of AIDS. Therefore, new strategies are needed for the eradication of the latent HIV reservoirs. We found that ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), a member of the new class of anti-cancer ingenol compounds, effectively reactivated HIV from latency in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV infected individuals receiving ART. Importantly, a combination of PEP005 and JQ1, a p-TEFb agonist, reactivated HIV from latency at level on average 7.5-fold higher compared to PEP005 alone. The potency of synergistic effects of PEP005 and JQ1 provide novel opportunities for advancing HIV eradication strategies in the future. In summary, ingenols represent a new group of lead compounds for combating HIV latency.