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      Optoelectronic tweezers: a versatile toolbox for nano-/micro-manipulation.

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          The rapid development of micromanipulation technologies has opened exciting new opportunities for the actuation, selection and assembly of a variety of non-biological and biological nano/micro-objects for applications ranging from microfabrication, cell analysis, tissue engineering, biochemical sensing, to nano/micro-machines. To date, a variety of precise, flexible and high-throughput manipulation techniques have been developed based on different physical fields. Among them, optoelectronic tweezers (OET) is a state-of-art technique that combines light stimuli with electric field together by leveraging the photoconductive effect of semiconductor materials. Herein, the behavior of micro-objects can be directly controlled by inducing the change of electric fields on demand in an optical manner. Relying on this light-induced electrokinetic effect, OET offers tremendous advantages in micromanipulation such as programmability, flexibility, versatility, high-throughput and ease of integration with other characterization systems, thus showing impressive performance compared to those of many other manipulation techniques. A lot of research on OET have been reported in recent years and the technology has developed rapidly in various fields of science and engineering. This work provides a comprehensive review of the OET technology, including its working mechanisms, experimental setups, applications in non-biological and biological scenarios, technology commercialization and future perspectives.

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          Author and article information

          Chem Soc Rev
          Chemical Society reviews
          Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
          Nov 14 2022
          : 51
          : 22
          [1 ] School of Mechatronical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Room 711, Building No 6, Science and Technology Park, 5 Zhongguancun South St, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China. shuailong.zhang@bit.edu.cn.
          [2 ] Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Intelligent Robots and Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.
          [3 ] Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robots and Systems (Beijing Institute of Technology), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100081, China.
          [4 ] Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G9, Canada.
          [5 ] Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E1, Canada.
          [6 ] Institute of Nanophotonics, Jinan University, Guangzhou 511443, China.
          [7 ] School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, 110168, China.
          [8 ] Berkeley Lights, Inc, 5858 Horton Street #320, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA.
          [9 ] State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.
          [10 ] Institutes for Robotics and Intelligent Manufacturing, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.
          [11 ] Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
          [12 ] Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H6, Canada.


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