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      Pre-Dilution vs. Post-Dilution during Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration: Impact on Filter Life and Azotemic Control

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          Background/Aims: To determine the impact of replacement fluid infusion site on filter life and azotemic control during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). Methods: Pre-dilution CVVH was conducted from February 2001 to December 2001 and then practice was changed to post-dilution (from January 2002 to July 2002). Filter life was prospectively observed and the following data obtained for each filter: starting date and time, ending date and time, heparin use, heparin dose and protamine use. Daily creatinine, urea, INR, APTT and platelet count were also collected. Results: Forty-eight patients were studied (33 in pre-dilution and 15 in post-dilution) for a total of 309 filters (202 in pre-dilution and 107 in post-dilution). The median filter life was significantly shorter in the post-dilution period (18.0 vs. 13.0 h, p = 0.021). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that pre-dilution was a significant independent predictor of increased filter life (p = 0.029), together with platelet count (p = 0.0035) and heparin dose (p = 0.046). There was no significant improvement in daily creatinine and/or urea reduction in the post-dilution period (% Δ creatinine: 7.9 vs. 10.2%/day, p = 0.99, urea: 5.4 vs. 9.7%/ day, p = 0.78). Conclusions: Post-dilution was associated with reduced filter life without any beneficial effect on daily changes in urea and creatinine levels. Pre-dilution appears a preferable technical approach to CVVH.

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          Effects of different doses in continuous veno-venous haemofiltration on outcomes of acute renal failure: a prospective randomised trial.

          Continuous veno-venous haemofiltration is increasingly used to treat acute renal failure in critically ill patients, but a clear definition of an adequate treatment dose has not been established. We undertook a prospective randomised study of the impact different ultrafiltration doses in continuous renal replacement therapy on survival. We enrolled 425 patients, with a mean age of 61 years, in intensive care who had acute renal failure. Patients were randomly assigned ultrafiltration at 20 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 1, n=146), 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 2, n=139), or 45 mL h(-1) kg(-1) (group 3, n=140). The primary endpoint was survival at 15 days after stopping haemofiltration. We also assessed recovery of renal function and frequency of complications during treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. Survival in group 1 was significantly lower than in groups 2 (p=0.0007) and 3 (p=0.0013). Survival in groups 2 and 3 did not differ significantly (p=0.87). Adjustment for possible confounding factors did not change the pattern of differences among the groups. Survivors in all groups had lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen before continuous haemofiltration was started than non-survivors. 95%, 92%, and 90% of survivors in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, had full recovery of renal function. The frequency of complications was similarly low in all groups. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high, but increase in the rate of ultrafiltration improved survival significantly. We recommend that ultrafiltration should be prescribed according to patient's bodyweight and should reach at least 35 mL h(-1) kg(-1).
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            A new Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) based on a European/North American multicenter study

             J-R Le Gall (1993)
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              Epidemiology, management, and outcome of severe acute renal failure of critical illness in Australia.

              To study the epidemiology, style of management, and outcome of intensive care patients with acute renal failure requiring replacement therapy in Australia. Prospective epidemiologic study. Australian adult intensive care units providing acute renal replacement therapy. Adult intensive care patients with acute renal failure treated with renal replacement therapy. Demographic and clinical data collection for 3 months. A standardized data collection form for each case of severe acute renal failure was used to collect demographic, biochemical, clinical, and outcome data. Severe acute renal failure affected 299 patients (approximately eight cases per 100,000 adults per year). Among these patients, 99 (33.1%) had impaired baseline renal function, 238 (79.6%) needed mechanical ventilation, and 232 (77.6%) needed continuous vasoactive drug administration. Critical care physicians controlled patient care and renal replacement therapy in 289 cases (96.7%). Critical care nurses performed such therapy alone in 288 (96.3%) cases. Continuous renal replacement therapy was used in 292 (97.7%) patients. There was no nephrological input in 173 (57.8%) cases. Predicted mortality rates were 52.1% by Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 49.5% by Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and 51.9% by an acute renal failure-specific score. Actual mortality rate was 46.8%. Only 25 (15.7%) patients were dialysis-dependent at hospital discharge. Of these patients, 20 (80%) had premorbid chronic impairment of renal function. In Australia, critical care physicians and nurses manage severe acute renal failure with limited consultative nephrological input. Renal replacement therapy is continuous and outcomes are satisfactory. Our findings support the view that this approach to management of severe acute renal failure is safe.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                August 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 4
                : c94-c98
                Department of Intensive Care and Department of Medicine, Austin & Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, Vic., Australia
                72492 Nephron Clin Pract 2003;94:c94–c98
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 4, References: 21, Pages: 1
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