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      Supplementation of nicotinic acid to prepartum Holstein cows increases colostral immunoglobulin G, excretion of urinary purine derivatives, and feed efficiency in calves

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      Journal of Dairy Science
      American Dairy Science Association

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          Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.

          There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
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            PUMA-G and HM74 are receptors for nicotinic acid and mediate its anti-lipolytic effect.

            Nicotinic acid (niacin), a vitamin of the B complex, has been used for almost 50 years as a lipid-lowering drug. The pharmacological effect of nicotinic acid requires doses that are much higher than those provided by a normal diet. Its primary action is to decrease lipolysis in adipose tissue by inhibiting hormone-sensitive triglyceride lipase. This anti-lipolytic effect of nicotinic acid involves the inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation in adipose tissue through a G(i)-protein-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. A G-protein-coupled receptor for nicotinic acid has been proposed in adipocytes. Here, we show that the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, 'protein upregulated in macrophages by interferon-gamma' (mouse PUMA-G, human HM74), is highly expressed in adipose tissue and is a nicotinic acid receptor. Binding of nicotinic acid to PUMA-G or HM74 results in a G(i)-mediated decrease in cAMP levels. In mice lacking PUMA-G, the nicotinic acid-induced decrease in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride plasma levels was abrogated, indicating that PUMA-G mediates the anti-lipolytic and lipid-lowering effects of nicotinic acid in vivo. The identification of the nicotinic acid receptor may be useful in the development of new drugs to treat dyslipidemia.
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              Nationwide evaluation of quality and composition of colostrum on dairy farms in the United States.

              The objective of this study was to characterize the quality of maternal colostrum (MC) fed to newborn dairy calves in the United States and identify the proportion of MC that meets industry standards for IgG concentration and total plate count (TPC). Samples of MC (n=827) were collected from 67 farms in 12 states between June and October 2010. Samples were collected from Holsteins (n=494), Jerseys (n=87), crossbred (n=7), and unidentified dairy cattle (n=239) from first (n=49), second (n=174), third or greater (n=128), and unknown (n=476) lactations. Samples were identified as fresh (n=196), refrigerated (n=152), or frozen (n=479) before collection, as well as whether the sample was from an individual cow (n=734) or pooled (n=93). Concentration of IgG in MC ranged from 100,000 cfu/mL, 16.9% of the samples had >1 million cfu/mL. Only 39.4% of the samples collected met industry recommendations for both IgG concentration and TPC. Almost 60% of MC on dairy farms is inadequate, and a large number of calves are at risk of failure of passive transfer or bacterial infections, or both. Also, the data indicate that regional differences exist in colostrum quality. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Journal of Dairy Science
                Journal of Dairy Science
                American Dairy Science Association
                00220302
                March 2020
                March 2020
                : 103
                : 3
                : 2287-2302
                Article
                10.3168/jds.2019-17058
                bd5c6113-7fbb-46b4-b61e-32b2e3a87467
                © 2020

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

                http://www.elsevier.com/open-access/userlicense/1.0/

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