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      The molecular basis of hypertrophic scars

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          Abstract

          Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are caused by dermal injuries such as trauma and burns to the deep dermis, which are red, raised, itchy and painful. They can cause cosmetic disfigurement or contractures if craniofacial areas or mobile region of the skin are affected. Abnormal wound healing with more extracellular matrix deposition than degradation will result in HTS formation. This review will introduce the physiology of wound healing, dermal HTS formation, treatment and difference with keloids in the skin, and it also review the current advance of molecular basis of HTS including the involvement of cytokines, growth factors, and macrophages via chemokine pathway, to bring insights for future prevention and treatment of HTS.

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          Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas.

          Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to IFNs, Toll-like receptor engagement, or IL-4/IL-13 signaling, macrophages undergo M1 (classical) or M2 (alternative) activation, which represent extremes of a continuum in a universe of activation states. Progress has now been made in defining the signaling pathways, transcriptional networks, and epigenetic mechanisms underlying M1-M2 or M2-like polarized activation. Functional skewing of mononuclear phagocytes occurs in vivo under physiological conditions (e.g., ontogenesis and pregnancy) and in pathology (allergic and chronic inflammation, tissue repair, infection, and cancer). However, in selected preclinical and clinical conditions, coexistence of cells in different activation states and unique or mixed phenotypes have been observed, a reflection of dynamic changes and complex tissue-derived signals. The identification of mechanisms and molecules associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for macrophage-centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
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            The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization.

            Plasticity and functional polarization are hallmarks of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Here we review emerging key properties of different forms of macrophage activation and polarization (M1, M2a, M2b, M2c), which represent extremes of a continuum. In particular, recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates polarized macrophages in pathways of resistance to, or promotion of, microbial pathogens and tumors, or immunoregulation, tissue repair and remodeling.
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              Inflammation in wound repair: molecular and cellular mechanisms.

              In post-natal life the inflammatory response is an inevitable consequence of tissue injury. Experimental studies established the dogma that inflammation is essential to the establishment of cutaneous homeostasis following injury, and in recent years information about specific subsets of inflammatory cell lineages and the cytokine network orchestrating inflammation associated with tissue repair has increased. Recently, this dogma has been challenged, and reports have raised questions on the validity of the essential prerequisite of inflammation for efficient tissue repair. Indeed, in experimental models of repair, inflammation has been shown to delay healing and to result in increased scarring. Furthermore, chronic inflammation, a hallmark of the non-healing wound, predisposes tissue to cancer development. Thus, a more detailed understanding in mechanisms controlling the inflammatory response during repair and how inflammation directs the outcome of the healing process will serve as a significant milestone in the therapy of pathological tissue repair. In this paper, we review cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling inflammation in cutaneous tissue repair and provide a rationale for targeting the inflammatory phase in order to modulate the outcome of the healing response.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                zhensen@ualberta.ca
                jied@ualberta.ca
                etredget@ualberta.ca
                Journal
                Burns Trauma
                Burns Trauma
                Burns & Trauma
                BioMed Central (London )
                2321-3868
                2321-3876
                21 January 2016
                21 January 2016
                2016
                : 4
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Wound Healing Research Group, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Canada
                [2 ]Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Canada
                [3 ]Department of Burn and Reconstructive Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong China
                Article
                26
                10.1186/s41038-015-0026-4
                4963951
                27574672
                bd5d207b-a334-4c52-a621-a446886a92aa
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 29 July 2015
                : 30 December 2015
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                hypertrophic scars,animal model,cytokines,growth factors,macrophages,stromal cell-derived factor 1/cxcr4 signaling

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