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      Extracts of Tectona grandis and Vernonia amygdalina have anti- Toxoplasma and pro-inflammatory properties in vitro Translated title: Les extraits de Tectona grandis et de Vernonia amygdalina ont des propriétés anti- Toxoplasma et pro-inflammatoires in vitro

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          Abstract

          Tectona grandis (teak) and Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) are plants used in traditional medicine in West Africa. In this study, we tested ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of bark and leaves of T. grandis and ethanolic extract of leaves of V. amygdalina for their inhibitory effect on Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis. Ethanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves had proportional contents of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, and polysaccharides. This extract presented the highest efficacy against T. gondii, the lowest cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, but moderate anti-oxidant activity compared to other plant extracts. Ethanolic extract of T. grandis bark also had elevated anti- T. gondii activity, low cytotoxicity on mammalian cells, and one of the highest anti-oxidant activities. However, the phytochemical content of this extract was not very different from the hydro-ethanolic extract, which had no anti- T. gondii activity. In addition, ethanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves, but not of T. grandis bark, significantly increased the production of TNF-α and NO by antigen-presenting cells. Both extracts had the tendency to decrease expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells, while they did not modulate the percentage of apoptotic cells. A study of signalling pathways would help to determine the mechanisms of action of these plant extracts.

          Translated abstract

          Tectona grandis (teck) et Vernonia amygdalina sont des plantes utilisées dans la médecine traditionnelle en Afrique de l’Ouest. Dans cette étude, l’effet inhibiteur d’extraits éthanoliques et hydro-éthanoliques d’écorce et de feuilles de T. grandis et de l’extrait éthanolique des feuilles de V. amygdalina a été étudié sur Toxoplasma gondii, un parasite protozoaire responsable de la toxoplasmose. L’extrait éthanolique des feuilles de V. amygdalina avait des quantités équivalentes de phénols, tanins, flavonoïdes et polysaccharides. Cet extrait présentait la plus grande efficacité contre T. gondii, la plus faible cytotoxicité vis-à-vis de cellules de mammifères, mais une activité anti-oxydante moyenne comparée aux autres extraits de plantes. L’extrait éthanolique d’écorce de T. grandis avait aussi une activité anti- T. gondii élevée, une faible cytotoxicité vis-à-vis des cellules de mammifères et l’une des activités anti-oxydantes les plus élevées. Cependant, le contenu phytochimique de cet extrait n’était pas très différent de l’extrait hydro-éthanolique qui n’avait pas d’activité anti- T. gondii. De plus, l’extrait éthanolique des feuilles de V. amygdalina, mais pas de l’écorce de T. grandis, augmentait significativement la production de TNF-α et de NO par les cellules présentatrices d’antigènes. Les deux extraits avaient tendance à diminuer l’expression des molécules du complexe majeur d’histocompatibilité à la surface des cellules présentatrices d’antigènes alors qu’ils ne modulaient pas le pourcentage de cellules apoptotiques. L’étude des voies de signalisation permettrait de comprendre les mécanismes d’action de ces extraits de plantes.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis

          Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.
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            A review of the medicinal potentials of plants of the genus Vernonia (Asteraceae).

            The Vernonia genus has about one thousand species and members of the genus are widely used as food and medicine. The aim of this review is to analyze published data on the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary and zoopharmacognostic uses of plants of the Vernonia genus. This will help to identify the state of ethnopharmacological knowledge in regard to this genus and to propose future research priorities. The major scientific databases including SciFinder, Sciencedirect, Medline and Google Scholar were queried for information on Vernonia genus using various keyword combinations. The International Plant Name Index was also used to verify the names of species and authors. A total of 109 Vernonia species were reported in the literature to have medicinal properties. One hundred and five (105) plants were linked to the treatment or management of 44 human diseases or health conditions. Plants of the genus also feature in ethnoveterinary and zoopharmacognostic practices. A total of 12 vernonia species were identified to be used in ethnoveterinary medicine while 2 species are used in self medication practices by chimpanzees and gorillas. In vitro and in vivo research studies reporting the validation of the medicinal properties of some species were also reviewed. One hundred and three bioactive compounds isolated from various Vernonia species were also identified. Vernonia amygdalina was identified as the most frequently used member of the Vernonia genus. The Vernolides, a class of sesquiterpene lactone were identified as the most studied compounds from the genus and show interesting bioactivity in antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, antischistosomial, cytotoxicity, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory assays. On the basis of results from a combination of in vitro and in vivo efficacy and toxicity studies reported, Vernonia amygdalina holds the most promise for development into a nutraceutical against diabetes and malaria while Vernonia cinerea has potential against cancer and inflammatory conditions. Vernolide A is so far the most promising single agent from a Vernonia species that has potential for development into an anticancer agent. The other Vernonia species and isolated compounds require further studies to ascertain their medicinal potentials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Ranking the disease burden of 14 pathogens in food sources in the United States using attribution data from outbreak investigations and expert elicitation.

              Understanding the relative public health impact of major microbiological hazards across the food supply is critical for a risk-based national food safety system. This study was conducted to estimate the U.S. health burden of 14 major pathogens in 12 broad categories of food and to then rank the resulting 168 pathogen-food combinations. These pathogens examined were Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, Salmonella enterica, Toxoplasma gondii, and all other FoodNet pathogens. The health burden associated with each pathogen was measured using new estimates of the cost of illness and loss of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from acute and chronic illness and mortality. A new method for attributing illness to foods was developed that relies on both outbreak data and expert elicitation. This method assumes that empirical data are generally preferable to expert judgment; thus, outbreak data were used for attribution except where evidence suggests that these data are considered not representative of food attribution. Based on evaluation of outbreak data, expert elicitation, and published scientific literature, outbreak-based attribution estimates for Campylobacter, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Yersinia were determined not representative; therefore, expert-based attribution were included for these four pathogens. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect of attribution data assumptions on rankings. Disease burden was concentrated among a relatively small number of pathogen-food combinations. The top 10 pairs were responsible for losses of over $8 billion and 36,000 QALYs, or more than 50 % of the total across all pairs. Across all 14 pathogens, poultry, pork, produce, and complex foods were responsible for nearly 60 % of the total cost of illness and loss of QALYs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2018
                13 March 2018
                : 25
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2018/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Laboratoire de Physiologie et de Pharmacologie des Substances Naturelles, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Lomé, B.P. 1515, Lomé 01 Togo
                [2 ] ISP, INRA, Université Tours, 37380 Nouzilly France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: francoise.debierre@ 123456univ-tours.fr
                [†]

                Joint first authors 

                [#]

                Joint last authors

                Article
                parasite170133 10.1051/parasite/2018014
                10.1051/parasite/2018014
                5849417
                29533762
                © M. Dégbé et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

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