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      Fitness of Herbicide-Resistant Weeds: Current Knowledge and Implications for Management

      1 , 2

      Plants

      MDPI

      resistance mutation, fitness benefit, fitness cost, resistance management

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          Abstract

          Herbicide resistance is the ultimate evidence of the extraordinary capacity of weeds to evolve under stressful conditions. Despite the extraordinary plant fitness advantage endowed by herbicide resistance mutations in agroecosystems under herbicide selection, resistance mutations are predicted to exhibit an adaptation cost (i.e., fitness cost), relative to the susceptible wild-type, in herbicide untreated conditions. Fitness costs associated with herbicide resistance mutations are not universal and their expression depends on the particular mutation, genetic background, dominance of the fitness cost, and environmental conditions. The detrimental effects of herbicide resistance mutations on plant fitness may arise as a direct impact on fitness-related traits and/or coevolution with changes in other life history traits that ultimately may lead to fitness costs under particular ecological conditions. This brings the idea that a “lower adaptive value” of herbicide resistance mutations represents an opportunity for the design of resistance management practices that could minimize the evolution of herbicide resistance. It is evident that the challenge for weed management practices aiming to control, minimize, or even reverse the frequency of resistance mutations in the agricultural landscape is to “create” those agroecological conditions that could expose, exploit, and exacerbate those life history and/or fitness traits affecting the evolution of herbicide resistance mutations. Ideally, resistance management should implement a wide range of cultural practices leading to environmentally mediated fitness costs associated with herbicide resistance mutations.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Direct and ecological costs of resistance to herbivory

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            Deciphering the evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds.

            Resistance to herbicides in arable weeds is increasing rapidly worldwide and threatening global food security. Resistance has now been reported to all major herbicide modes of action despite the development of resistance management strategies in the 1990s. We review here recent advances in understanding the genetic bases and evolutionary drivers of herbicide resistance that highlight the complex nature of selection for this adaptive trait. Whereas early studied cases of resistance were highly herbicide-specific and largely under monogenic control, cases of greatest concern today generally involve resistance to multiple modes of action, are under polygenic control, and are derived from pre-existing stress response pathways. Although 'omics' approaches should enable unraveling the genetic bases of complex resistances, the appearance, selection, and spread of herbicide resistance in weed populations can only be fully elucidated by focusing on evolutionary dynamics and implementing integrative modeling efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Glyphosate resistance: state of knowledge

              Studies of mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate have increased current understanding of herbicide resistance mechanisms. Thus far, single-codon non-synonymous mutations of EPSPS (5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) have been rare and, relative to other herbicide mode of action target-site mutations, unconventionally weak in magnitude for resistance to glyphosate. However, it is possible that weeds will emerge with non-synonymous mutations of two codons of EPSPS to produce an enzyme endowing greater resistance to glyphosate. Today, target-gene duplication is a common glyphosate resistance mechanism and could become a fundamental process for developing any resistance trait. Based on competition and substrate selectivity studies in several species, rapid vacuole sequestration of glyphosate occurs via a transporter mechanism. Conversely, as the chloroplast requires transporters for uptake of important metabolites, transporters associated with the two plastid membranes may separately, or together, successfully block glyphosate delivery. A model based on finite glyphosate dose and limiting time required for chloroplast loading sets the stage for understanding how uniquely different mechanisms can contribute to overall glyphosate resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                01 November 2019
                November 2019
                : 8
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]IFEVA, CONICET, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Agronomy, University of Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires 1417, Argentina; vila@ 123456ifeva.edu.ar
                [2 ]School of Agriculture & Environment, University of Western Australia (UWA), Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
                Article
                plants-08-00469
                10.3390/plants8110469
                6918315
                31683943
                © 2019 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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