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      Admission Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality and Subsequent Long-Term Outcome in Survivors of Ventricular Fibrillation Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Population-Based Study

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          Background: Survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) from ventricular fibrillation (VF) is poor and dependent on a rapid emergency response system. Improvements in emergent early response have resulted in a higher percentage of patients surviving to admission. However, the admission variables that predict both short- and long-term survival in a region with high discharge survival following OHCA require further study in order to identify survivors at subsequent highest risk. Methods: All patients with OHCA arrest in Olmsted County Minnesota between 1990 and 2000 who received defibrillation of VF by emergency services were included in the population-based study. Baseline patient admission characteristics in survivor and nonsurvivor groups were compared. Survivors to hospital discharge were prospectively followed to determine long-term survival. Results: Two hundred patients suffered a VF arrest. Of these patients, 145 (73%) survived to hospital admission (7 died within the emergency department) and 79 (40%) were subsequently discharged. Sixty-six (83%) were male, with an average age of 61.9 ± 15.9 years. Univariate predictors of in-hospital mortality included call-to-shock time (6.6 vs. 5.5 min, p = 0.002), a nonwitnessed arrest (75.4 vs. 92.4%, p = 0.008), in-field use of epinephrine (27.8 vs. 93.4%, p < 0.001), age (68.1 vs. 61.9 years, p = 0.017), hypertension (36.1 vs. 14.1%, p = 0.005), ejection fraction (32.4 vs. 42.4, p = 0.012), and use of digoxin (34.9 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.002). Of all these variables, hypertension [hazard ratio (HR) 4.0, 95% CI 1.1–14.1, p = 0.03], digoxin use (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.3–15.6, p = 0.02), and epinephrine requirement (HR 62.0, 95% CI 15.1–254.8, p < 0.001) were multivariate predictors of in-hospital mortality. Nineteen patients (24%) had died prior to the survey follow-up. Five patients experienced a cardiac death, resulting in a 5-year expected cardiac survival of 92%. Multivariate variables predictive of long-term mortality include digoxin use (HR 3.02, 95% CI 1.80–5.06, p < 0.001), hypertension (HR 2.06, 95% CI 2.12–3.45, p = 0.006), and call-to-shock time (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01–1.38, p = 0.038). Conclusion: A combined police/fire/EMS defibrillation program has resulted in an increase of patients surviving to hospital admission after OHCA. This study confirms the need to decrease call-to-shock times, which influence both in-hospital and long-term mortality. This study also identifies the novel demographic variables of digoxin and hypertension, which were also independent risk factors of increased in-hospital and long-term mortality. Identification of these variables may provide utility in identifying those at high-risk of subsequent mortality after resuscitation.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Cardiac resuscitation.

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            Long-term outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after successful early defibrillation.

            Mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from ventricular fibrillation is high. Programs focusing on early defibrillation have improved the rate of survival to hospital discharge. We conducted a population-based analysis of the long-term outcome and quality of life of survivors. All patients who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between November 1990 and January 2001 who received early defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, were included. The survival rate was compared with that of an age-, sex-, and disease-matched (2:1) control population of residents who had not had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and with that of age- and sex-matched controls from the general U.S. population. The quality of life was assessed with use of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-36) and compared with U.S. population norms. Of 200 patients who presented with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation, 145 (72 percent) survived to hospital admission (7 died in the emergency department) and 79 (40 percent) were neurologically intact (good overall capability or moderate overall disability) at discharge. The mean (+/-SD) length of follow-up was 4.8+/-3.0 years. Nineteen patients died after discharge from the hospital. The expected five-year survival rate (79 percent) was identical to that among age-, sex-, and disease-matched controls (P=0.68) but lower than that among the age- and sex-matched U.S. population (86 percent, P=0.02). Fifty patients completed SF-36 surveys at the end of follow-up, and the majority had a nearly normal quality of life, with the exception of reduced vitality. Long-term survival among patients who have undergone rapid defibrillation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is similar to that among age-, sex-, and disease-matched patients who did not have out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The quality of life among the majority of survivors is similar to that of the general population. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in New York City. The Pre-Hospital Arrest Survival Evaluation (PHASE) Study.

              To determine survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in New York City and to compare this with other urban, suburban, and rural areas. Observational cohort study. New York City. Consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring between October 1, 1990, and April 1, 1991. Trained paramedics performed immediate postarrest interviews with care providers, using a standardized questionnaire. Entry criteria, elapsed time intervals, and nodal events conformed to Utstein recommendations. The single target end point was death or discharge home. Of 3243 consecutive cardiac arrests on which resuscitation was attempted, 2329 (72%) met entry criteria as primary cardiac events. Overall survival was 1.4% (99% confidence interval [CI], 0.9% to 2.3%). No patients were lost to follow-up. Survival from witnessed ventricular fibrillation was 5.3% (99% CI, 2.9% to 8.8%). Using survival from witnessed ventricular fibrillation for intersystem comparison, our survival rate was similar to that of Chicago, Ill (4.0%; 99% CI, 1.9% to 7.5%; P = .41), the only other large city on which data were available. However, it was significantly lower than that reported from midsized urban/suburban areas (33.0%; 99% CI, 30.4% to 35.6%; P < .0001) and suburban/rural areas (12.6%; 99% CI, 8.9% to 16.3%; P < .0001). Survival rate among arrests occurring after arrival of emergency medical services personnel (8.5%; 99% CI, 4.7% to 14.0%) was comparable with Chicago (6.6%; 99% CI, 3.3% to 11.5%; P = .41) but markedly lower than King County, Washington (36%; 99% CI, 28.6% to 43.8%; P < .0001). Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in New York City was poor. This was partly attributable to lengthy elapsed time intervals at every step in the chain of survival. However, examination of survival among arrests occurring after emergency medical services arrival suggests that other features may predispose residents of large cities to higher cardiac arrest mortality than individuals living in more suburban or rural settings. Since half the US population resides in large metropolitan areas, this represents a public health problem of considerable magnitude.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2004
                28 April 2004
                : 102
                : 1
                : 41-47
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, bDivision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, and cDepartments of Anesthesiology and Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., USA
                77003 Cardiology 2004;102:41–47
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 40, Pages: 7
                General Cardiology


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