Blog
About

  • Record: found
  • Abstract: found
  • Article: not found

A gene regulatory network orchestrates neural crest formation.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology

metabolism, Transcription Factors, physiology, cytology, Stem Cells, Signal Transduction, embryology, anatomy & histology, Neural Crest, Morphogenesis, Gene Regulatory Networks, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Gap Junctions, Embryonic Induction, Cell Movement, Cell Differentiation, Cell Cycle, Animals

Read this article at

ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
Bookmark
      There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

      Abstract

      The neural crest is a multipotent, migratory cell population that is unique to vertebrate embryos and gives rise to many derivatives, ranging from the peripheral nervous system to the craniofacial skeleton and pigment cells. A multimodule gene regulatory network mediates the complex process of neural crest formation, which involves the early induction and maintenance of the precursor pool, emigration of the neural crest progenitors from the neural tube via an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, migration of progenitor cells along distinct pathways and overt differentiation into diverse cell types. Here, we review our current understanding of these processes and discuss the molecular players that are involved in the neural crest gene regulatory network.

      Related collections

      Most cited references 3

      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      SOX9 is a potent activator of the chondrocyte-specific enhancer of the pro alpha1(II) collagen gene.

      The identification of mutations in the SRY-related SOX9 gene in patients with campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal malformation syndrome, and the abundant expression of Sox9 in mouse chondroprogenitor cells and fully differentiated chondrocytes during embryonic development have suggested the hypothesis that SOX9 might play a role in chondrogenesis. Our previous experiments with the gene (Col2a1) for collagen II, an early and abundant marker of chondrocyte differentiation, identified a minimal DNA element in intron 1 which directs chondrocyte-specific expression in transgenic mice. This element is also a strong chondrocyte-specific enhancer in transient transfection experiments. We show here that Col2a1 expression is closely correlated with high levels of SOX9 RNA and protein in chondrocytes. Our experiments indicate that the minimal Col2a1 enhancer is a direct target for Sox9. Indeed, SOX9 binds to a sequence of the minimal Col2a1 enhancer that is essential for activity in chondrocytes, and SOX9 acts as a potent activator of this enhancer in cotransfection experiments in nonchondrocytic cells. Mutations in the enhancer that prevent binding of SOX9 abolish enhancer activity in chondrocytes and suppress enhancer activation by SOX9 in nonchondrocytic cells. Other SOX family members are ineffective. Expression of a truncated SOX9 protein lacking the transactivation domain but retaining DNA-binding activity interferes with enhancer activation by full-length SOX9 in fibroblasts and inhibits enhancer activity in chondrocytes. Our results strongly suggest a model whereby SOX9 is involved in the control of the cell-specific activation of COL2A1 in chondrocytes, an essential component of the differentiation program of these cells. We speculate that in campomelic dysplasia a decrease in SOX9 activity would inhibit production of collagen II, and eventually other cartilage matrix proteins, leading to major skeletal anomalies.
        Bookmark
        • Record: found
        • Abstract: found
        • Article: not found

        The many faces of metalloproteases: cell growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis.

        Metalloproteases are important in many aspects of biology, ranging from cell proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to vascularization and cell migration. These events occur several times during organogenesis in both normal development and during tumor progression. Mechanisms of metalloprotease action underlying these events include the proteolytic cleavage of growth factors so that they can become available to cells not in direct physical contact, degradation of the ECM so that founder cells can move across tissues into nearby stroma, and regulated receptor cleavage to terminate migratory signaling. Most of these processes require a delicate balance between the functions of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) or metalloprotease-disintegrins (ADAMs) and natural tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs). In this review, we discuss recent progress in identifying an essential role for metalloproteases in axon outgrowth, as an example of a focal invasive event. We also discuss the evolving concept of how MMPs might regulate stem cell fate during tumor development.
          Bookmark
          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          The inductive properties of mesoderm suggest that the neural crest cells are specified by a BMP gradient.

          We have analyzed the role of mesoderm in the induction of the neural crest in Xenopus using expression of neural plate (Xsox-2) and neural crest (Xslug and ADAM). Conjugation experiments using different kinds of mesoderm together with embryonic dissection experiments suggest that the dorsolateral mesoderm is capable of specifically inducing neural crest cells. Neural crest markers can be induced in competent ectoderm at varying distances from the inducing mesoderm, with dorsal tissue inducing neural crest at a distance while dorsolateral tissue only induces neural crest directly in adjacent ectoderm. The results suggest that dorsal mesoderm has a high level of inducer and dorsolateral mesoderm has a lower level, consistent with a inductive gradient. We explored the possible role of BMP and noggin in the generation of such a hypothetical gradient and found that: (1) progressively higher levels of BMP activity are sufficient for the specification of neural plate, neural crest, and nonneural cells, respectively; (2) progressively higher levels of noggin are able to induce neural crest at greater distances from the source of inducer; and (3) modification of the levels of BMP activity causes induction of the neural crest in absence of neural plate, suggesting independent induction of these two tissues. We propose a model in which a gradient of BMP activity is established in the ectoderm by interaction between BMP in the ectoderm and BMP inhibitors in the mesoderm. Neural crest is induced when a threshold level of BMP is attained in the ectoderm. The dorsolateral mesoderm produces either BMP inhibitors or a specific neural crest inducer, with low BMP activity inducing neural plate while high BMP activity induces epidermis.
            Bookmark

            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.1038/nrm2428
            18523435

            Comments

            Comment on this article