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      HLA polymorphisms and detection of kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus DNA in saliva and peripheral blood among children and their mothers in the uganda sickle cell anemia KSHV Study

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          Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called Human herpesvirus 8 or HHV8) is a γ-2 herpesvirus that causes Kaposi sarcoma. KSHV seroprevalence rates vary geographically with variable rates recorded in different sub Sahara African countries, suggesting that effects of genetic and/or environmental factors may influence the risk of infection. One study conducted in South Africa, where KSHV seroprevalence is relatively low, found that carriage of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles HLA-A*6801, HLA-A*30, HLA-A*4301, and HLA-DRB1*04 was associated with increased shedding of KSHV DNA in saliva. Confirmation of those results would strengthen the hypothesis that genetic factors may influence KSHV distribution by modulating KSHV shedding in saliva. To explore these associations in another setting, we used high resolution HLA-A, B, and DRB1 typing on residual samples from the Uganda Sickle Cell Anemia KSHV study, conducted in a high KSHV seroprevalence region, to investigate associations between HLA and KSHV shedding in saliva or peripheral blood among 233 children and their mothers. HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles were not associated with KSHV shedding in our study, but our study was small and was not adequately powered to exclude small associations. In exploratory analyses, we found marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in saliva but not in peripheral blood among children carrying HLA- B*4415 and marginal association of KSHV DNA shedding in peripheral blood but not in saliva among children carrying HLA- B*0801 alleles. The contribution of individual HLA polymorphisms to KSHV shedding is important but it may vary in different populations. Larger population-based studies are needed to estimate the magnitude and direction of association of HLA with KSHV shedding and viral control.

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          Common west African HLA antigens are associated with protection from severe malaria.

          A large case-control study of malaria in West African children shows that a human leucocyte class I antigen (HLA-Bw53) and an HLA class II haplotype (DRB1*1302-DQB1*0501), common in West Africans but rare in other racial groups, are independently associated with protection from severe malaria. In this population they account for as great a reduction in disease incidence as the sickle-cell haemoglobin variant. These data support the hypothesis that the extraordinary polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex genes has evolved primarily through natural selection by infectious pathogens.
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            Molecular analysis of the association of HLA-B53 and resistance to severe malaria.

            The protective association between the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B53 and severe malaria was investigated by sequencing of peptides eluted from this molecule followed by screening of candidate epitopes from pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum in biochemical and cellular assays. Among malaria-immune Africans, HLA-B53-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognized a conserved nonamer peptide from liver-stage-specific antigen-1 (LSA-1), but no HLA-B53-restricted epitopes were identified in other antigens. These findings indicate a possible molecular basis for this HLA-disease association and support the candidacy of liver-stage-specific antigen-1 as a malaria vaccine component.
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              The immunogenetics of human infectious diseases.

               G A Paganini (1997)
              Twin and adoptee studies have indicated that host genetic factors are major determinants of susceptibility to infectious disease in humans. Twin studies have also found high heritabilities for many humoral and cellular immune responses to pathogen antigens, with most of the genetic component mapping outside of the major histocompatibility complex. Candidate gene studies have implicated several immunogenetic polymorphisms in human infectious diseases. HLA variation has been associated with susceptibility or resistance to malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, AIDS, and hepatitis virus persistence. Variation in the tumor necrosis factor gene promoter has also been associated with several infectious diseases. Chemokine receptor polymorphism affects both susceptibility ot HIV-1 infection and the rate of progression to AIDS. Inactivating mutations of the gamma-interferon receptor lead to increased susceptibility to typical mycobacteria and disseminated BCG infection in homozygous children. The active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects, and allelic variants of the vitamin D receptor appear to be associated with differential susceptibility to several infectious diseases. NRAMP1, a macrophage gene identified by positional cloning of its murine homologue, has been implicated in susceptibility to tuberculosis in Africans. Whole genome linkage analysis of multi-case families is now being used to map and identify new loci affecting susceptibility to infectious diseases. It is likely that susceptibility to most microorganisms is determined by a large number of polymorphic genes, and identification of these should provide insights into protective and pathogenic mechanisms in infectious diseases.

                Author and article information

                Infect Agent Cancer
                Infectious Agents and Cancer
                BioMed Central
                18 November 2010
                : 5
                : 21
                [1 ]Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG), National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
                [2 ]Institute for Transfusion Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
                [3 ]Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG), National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
                [4 ]Institute of Virology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
                [5 ]Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
                [6 ]Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH, USA
                Copyright ©2010 Guech-Ongey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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