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      TMEM16A knockdown abrogates two different Ca 2+-activated Cl currents and contractility of smooth muscle in rat mesenteric small arteries

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          Abstract

          The presence of Ca 2+-activated Cl channels (CaCCs) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is well established. Their molecular identity is, however, elusive. Two distinct Ca 2+-activated Cl currents ( I Cl(Ca)) were previously characterized in SMCs. We have shown that the cGMP-dependent I Cl(Ca) depends on bestrophin expression, while the “classical” I Cl(Ca) is not. Downregulation of bestrophins did not affect arterial contraction but inhibited the rhythmic contractions, vasomotion. In this study, we have used in vivo siRNA transfection of rat mesenteric small arteries to investigate the role of a putative CaCC, TMEM16A. Isometric force, [Ca 2+] i, and SMC membrane potential were measured in isolated arterial segments. I Cl(Ca) and GTPγS-induced nonselective cation current were measured in isolated SMCs. Downregulation of TMEM16A resulted in inhibition of both the cGMP-dependent I Cl(Ca) and the “classical” I Cl(Ca) in SMCs. TMEM16A downregulation also reduced expression of bestrophins. TMEM16A downregulation suppressed vasomotion both in vivo and in vitro. Downregulation of TMEM16A reduced agonist (noradrenaline and vasopressin) and K +-induced contractions. In accordance with the depolarizing role of CaCCs, TMEM16A downregulation suppressed agonist-induced depolarization and elevation in [Ca 2+] i. Surprisingly, K +-induced depolarization was unchanged but Ca 2+ entry was reduced. We suggested that this is due to reduced expression of the L-type Ca 2+ channels, as observed at the mRNA level. Thus, the importance of TMEM16A for contraction is, at least in part, independent from membrane potential. This study demonstrates the significance of TMEM16A for two SMCs I Cl(Ca) and vascular function and suggests an interaction between TMEM16A and L-type Ca 2+ channels.

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          Most cited references 45

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          TMEM16A confers receptor-activated calcium-dependent chloride conductance.

          Calcium (Ca(2+))-activated chloride channels are fundamental mediators in numerous physiological processes including transepithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitation, sensory transduction, smooth muscle contraction and fertilization. Despite their physiological importance, their molecular identity has remained largely unknown. Here we show that transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A, which we also call anoctamin 1 (ANO1)) is a bona fide Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-mobilizing stimuli. With eight putative transmembrane domains and no apparent similarity to previously characterized channels, ANO1 defines a new family of ionic channels. The biophysical properties as well as the pharmacological profile of ANO1 are in full agreement with native Ca(2+)-activated chloride currents. ANO1 is expressed in various secretory epithelia, the retina and sensory neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of mouse Ano1 markedly reduced native Ca(2+)-activated chloride currents as well as saliva production in mice. We conclude that ANO1 is a candidate Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that mediates receptor-activated chloride currents in diverse physiological processes.
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            TMEM16A, a membrane protein associated with calcium-dependent chloride channel activity.

            Calcium-dependent chloride channels are required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability. The molecular identity of these membrane proteins is still unclear. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) causes increased calcium-dependent chloride channel activity, presumably by regulating expression of the corresponding genes. We performed a global gene expression analysis to identify membrane proteins that are regulated by IL-4. Transfection of epithelial cells with specific small interfering RNA against each of these proteins shows that TMEM16A, a member of a family of putative plasma membrane proteins with unknown function, is associated with calcium-dependent chloride current, as measured with halide-sensitive fluorescent proteins, short-circuit current, and patch-clamp techniques. Our results indicate that TMEM16A is an intrinsic constituent of the calcium-dependent chloride channel. Identification of a previously unknown family of membrane proteins associated with chloride channel function will improve our understanding of chloride transport physiopathology and allow for the development of pharmacological tools useful for basic research and drug development.
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              Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit.

              Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog egg membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most CaCCs in native cells. Using Axolotl oocytes as an expression system, we have identified TMEM16A as the Xenopus oocyte CaCC. The TMEM16 family of "transmembrane proteins with unknown function" is conserved among eukaryotes, with family members linked to tracheomalacia (mouse TMEM16A), gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (human TMEM16E), aberrant X segregation (a Drosophila TMEM16 family member), and increased sodium tolerance (yeast TMEM16). Moreover, mouse TMEM16A and TMEM16B yield CaCCs in Axolotl oocytes and mammalian HEK293 cells and recapitulate the broad CaCC expression. The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +45-87167723 , vvm@fi.au.dk
                Journal
                Pflugers Arch
                Pflugers Arch
                Pflugers Archiv
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0031-6768
                1432-2013
                27 October 2013
                27 October 2013
                2014
                : 466
                : 1391-1409
                Affiliations
                Department of Biomedicine, MEMBRANES, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Alle bygn.4, 1163, Aarhus, C 8000 Denmark
                Article
                1382
                10.1007/s00424-013-1382-1
                4062836
                24162234
                bda6a93a-c305-45b0-9ac5-b2d95c13636e
                © The Author(s) 2013

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Ion Channels, Receptors and Transporters
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

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