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      Characterization of human plasma-derived exosomal RNAs by deep sequencing

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          Abstract

          Background

          Exosomes, endosome-derived membrane microvesicles, contain specific RNA transcripts that are thought to be involved in cell-cell communication. These RNA transcripts have great potential as disease biomarkers. To characterize exosomal RNA profiles systemically, we performed RNA sequencing analysis using three human plasma samples and evaluated the efficacies of small RNA library preparation protocols from three manufacturers. In all we evaluated 14 libraries (7 replicates).

          Results

          From the 14 size-selected sequencing libraries, we obtained a total of 101.8 million raw single-end reads, an average of about 7.27 million reads per library. Sequence analysis showed that there was a diverse collection of the exosomal RNA species among which microRNAs (miRNAs) were the most abundant, making up over 42.32% of all raw reads and 76.20% of all mappable reads. At the current read depth, 593 miRNAs were detectable. The five most common miRNAs (miR-99a-5p, miR-128, miR-124-3p, miR-22-3p, and miR-99b-5p) collectively accounted for 48.99% of all mappable miRNA sequences. MiRNA target gene enrichment analysis suggested that the highly abundant miRNAs may play an important role in biological functions such as protein phosphorylation, RNA splicing, chromosomal abnormality, and angiogenesis. From the unknown RNA sequences, we predicted 185 potential miRNA candidates. Furthermore, we detected significant fractions of other RNA species including ribosomal RNA (9.16% of all mappable counts), long non-coding RNA (3.36%), piwi-interacting RNA (1.31%), transfer RNA (1.24%), small nuclear RNA (0.18%), and small nucleolar RNA (0.01%); fragments of coding sequence (1.36%), 5 untranslated region (0.21%), and 3 untranslated region (0.54%) were also present. In addition to the RNA composition of the libraries, we found that the three tested commercial kits generated a sufficient number of DNA fragments for sequencing but each had significant bias toward capturing specific RNAs.

          Conclusions

          This study demonstrated that a wide variety of RNA species are embedded in the circulating vesicles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that applied deep sequencing to discover and characterize profiles of plasma-derived exosomal RNAs. Further characterization of these extracellular RNAs in diverse human populations will provide reference profiles and open new doors for the development of blood-based biomarkers for human diseases.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Exosomal microRNA: a diagnostic marker for lung cancer.

          To date, there is no screening test for lung cancer shown to affect overall mortality. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNA genes found to be abnormally expressed in several types of cancer, suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. We evaluated the circulating levels of tumor exosomes, exosomal small RNA, and specific exosomal miRNAs in patients with and without lung adenocarcinoma, correlating the levels with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) disease stage to validate it as an acceptable marker for diagnosis and prognosis in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. To date, 27 patients with lung adenocarcinoma AJCC stages I-IV and 9 controls, all aged 21-80 years, were enrolled in the study. Small RNA was detected in the circulating exosomes. The mean exosome concentration was 2.85 mg/mL (95% CI, 1.94-3.76) for the lung adenocarcinoma group versus 0.77 mg/mL (95% CI, 0.68-0.86) for the control group (P < .001). The mean miRNA concentration was 158.6 ng/mL (95% CI, 145.7-171.5) for the lung adenocarcinoma group versus 68.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 57.2-78.9) for the control group (P < .001). Comparisons between peripheral circulation miRNA-derived exosomes and miRNA-derived tumors indicated that the miRNA signatures were not significantly different. The significant difference in total exosome and miRNA levels between lung cancer patients and controls, and the similarity between the circulating exosomal miRNA and the tumor-derived miRNA patterns, suggest that circulating exosomal miRNA might be useful as a screening test for lung adenocarcinoma. No correlation between the exosomal miRNA levels and the stage of disease can be made at this point.
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            miRDB: a microRNA target prediction and functional annotation database with a wiki interface.

             Xiaowei Wang (2008)
            MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of thousands of gene targets. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are likely to be master regulators of many important biological processes. Due to their functional importance, miRNAs are under intense study at present, and many studies have been published in recent years on miRNA functional characterization. The rapid accumulation of miRNA knowledge makes it challenging to properly organize and present miRNA function data. Although several miRNA functional databases have been developed recently, this remains a major bioinformatics challenge to miRNA research community. Here, we describe a new online database system, miRDB, on miRNA target prediction and functional annotation. Flexible web search interface was developed for the retrieval of target prediction results, which were generated with a new bioinformatics algorithm we developed recently. Unlike most other miRNA databases, miRNA functional annotations in miRDB are presented with a primary focus on mature miRNAs, which are the functional carriers of miRNA-mediated gene expression regulation. In addition, a wiki editing interface was established to allow anyone with Internet access to make contributions on miRNA functional annotation. This is a new attempt to develop an interactive community-annotated miRNA functional catalog. All data stored in miRDB are freely accessible at http://mirdb.org.
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              miR-124 and miR-137 inhibit proliferation of glioblastoma multiforme cells and induce differentiation of brain tumor stem cells

              Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an invariably fatal central nervous system tumor despite treatment with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Further insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms that drive GBM formation are required to improve patient outcome. MicroRNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular differentiation and proliferation, and have been implicated in the etiology of a variety of cancers, yet the role of microRNAs in GBM remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs in regulating the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells and glioblastoma-multiforme tumor cells. Methods We used quantitative RT-PCR to assess microRNA expression in high-grade astrocytomas and adult mouse neural stem cells. To assess the function of candidate microRNAs in high-grade astrocytomas, we transfected miR mimics to cultured-mouse neural stem cells, -mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells, -human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells and -glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. Cellular differentiation was assessed by immunostaining, and cellular proliferation was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Our studies revealed that expression levels of microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 were significantly decreased in anaplastic astrocytomas (World Health Organization grade III) and glioblastoma multiforme (World Health Organization grade IV) relative to non-neoplastic brain tissue (P < 0.01), and were increased 8- to 20-fold during differentiation of cultured mouse neural stem cells following growth factor withdrawal. Expression of microRNA-137 was increased 3- to 12-fold in glioblastoma multiforme cell lines U87 and U251 following inhibition of DNA methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). Transfection of microRNA-124 or microRNA-137 induced morphological changes and marker expressions consistent with neuronal differentiation in mouse neural stem cells, mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells derived from S100β-v-erbB tumors and cluster of differentiation 133+ human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells (SF6969). Transfection of microRNA-124 or microRNA-137 also induced G1 cell cycle arrest in U251 and SF6969 glioblastoma multiforme cells, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma (pSer 807/811) proteins. Conclusion microRNA-124 and microRNA-137 induce differentiation of adult mouse neural stem cells, mouse oligodendroglioma-derived stem cells and human glioblastoma multiforme-derived stem cells and induce glioblastoma multiforme cell cycle arrest. These results suggest that targeted delivery of microRNA-124 and/or microRNA-137 to glioblastoma multiforme tumor cells may be therapeutically efficacious for the treatment of this disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central
                1471-2164
                2013
                10 May 2013
                : 14
                : 319
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology and Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA
                [2 ]Human Molecular Genetics Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA
                [3 ]Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
                [4 ]Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150086, China
                [5 ]Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsi, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA
                [6 ]Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
                [7 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
                Article
                1471-2164-14-319
                10.1186/1471-2164-14-319
                3653748
                23663360
                Copyright ©2013 Huang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Genetics

                plasma, next generation sequencing, microrna, exosome, biomarker

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