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      Sumoylation on its 25th anniversary: mechanisms, pathology, and emerging concepts

      1 , 1
      The FEBS Journal
      Wiley

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          Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: components, mechanisms, and diseases.

          Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycolipoproteins via the transcriptional coactivator beta-catenin controls embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Here we review recent progress in this so-called canonical Wnt signaling pathway. We discuss Wnt ligands, agonists, and antagonists, and their interactions with Wnt receptors. We also dissect critical events that regulate beta-catenin stability, from Wnt receptors to the cytoplasmic beta-catenin destruction complex, and nuclear machinery that mediates beta-catenin-dependent transcription. Finally, we highlight some key aspects of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in human diseases including congenital malformations, cancer, and osteoporosis, and discuss potential therapeutic implications.
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            CRISPR-mediated modular RNA-guided regulation of transcription in eukaryotes.

            The genetic interrogation and reprogramming of cells requires methods for robust and precise targeting of genes for expression or repression. The CRISPR-associated catalytically inactive dCas9 protein offers a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting. Here, we show that fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables stable and efficient transcriptional repression or activation in human and yeast cells, with the site of delivery determined solely by a coexpressed short guide (sg)RNA. Coupling of dCas9 to a transcriptional repressor domain can robustly silence expression of multiple endogenous genes. RNA-seq analysis indicates that CRISPR interference (CRISPRi)-mediated transcriptional repression is highly specific. Our results establish that the CRISPR system can be used as a modular and flexible DNA-binding platform for the recruitment of proteins to a target DNA sequence, revealing the potential of CRISPRi as a general tool for the precise regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              The ubiquitin code.

              The posttranslational modification with ubiquitin, a process referred to as ubiquitylation, controls almost every process in cells. Ubiquitin can be attached to substrate proteins as a single moiety or in the form of polymeric chains in which successive ubiquitin molecules are connected through specific isopeptide bonds. Reminiscent of a code, the various ubiquitin modifications adopt distinct conformations and lead to different outcomes in cells. Here, we discuss the structure, assembly, and function of this ubiquitin code.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                The FEBS Journal
                FEBS J
                Wiley
                1742-464X
                1742-4658
                August 2020
                May 2020
                August 2020
                : 287
                : 15
                : 3110-3140
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics Center for Life Sciences and Technologies Bogazici University Istanbul Turkey
                Article
                10.1111/febs.15319
                32255256
                bdac3d8d-68f6-4bdf-bf66-0c3d02e659b6
                © 2020

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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