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      A new species of terrestrial frog Pristimantis (Strabomantidae) from the upper basin of the Pastaza River, Ecuador

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          We describe a new species of Pristimantis from the montane forest of the Río Zuñag Ecological Reserve, upper basin of the Pastaza River, Ecuador. Pristimantis mallii sp. n. is characterized by a snout-vent length of 11.6–21.3 mm in adult males ( n = 12), 22.6–34.3 mm in adult females ( n = 8), and is compared morphologically and genetically with Pristimantis miktos and with other relevant species of Pristimantis . The new species is characterized by having skin on dorsum and flanks shagreen, distinctive scapular folds, snout broadly rounded in dorsal view, upper eyelid bearing one or two subconical tubercles and some rounded tubercles, dorsum and flanks light brown to brown, with irregular dark brown marks bounded by dirty cream and groin with irregular yellowish marks.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen

          Describimos una nueva especie de Pristimantis del bosque montano de la Reserva Ecológica Río Zuñag, cuenca alta del río Pastaza, Ecuador. Pristimantis mallii sp. n es caracterizada por una longitud rostro-cloacal de 11.6–21.3 mm en machos adultos ( n = 12), 22.6–34.3 mm en hembras adultas ( n = 8), y es comparada morfológica y genéticamente con Pristimantis miktos y con otras especies relevantes de Pristimantis . La especie nueva se caracteriza por tener la piel del dorso y flancos finamente granular, pliegues escapulares distintivos, hocico redondeado en vista dorsal, párpado superior con uno dos tubérculos subcónicos y algunos redondeados, dorso y flancos café claro a café, con marcas irregulares café oscuras bordeadas de crema sucio y marcas irregulares amarillentas en las ingles.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Underestimation of Species Richness in Neotropical Frogs Revealed by mtDNA Analyses

          Background Amphibians are rapidly vanishing. At the same time, it is most likely that the number of amphibian species is highly underestimated. Recent DNA barcoding work has attempted to define a threshold between intra- and inter-specific genetic distances to help identify candidate species. In groups with high extinction rates and poorly known species boundaries, like amphibians, such tools may provide a way to rapidly evaluate species richness. Methodology Here we analyse published and new 16S rDNA sequences from 60 frog species of Amazonia-Guianas to obtain a minimum estimate of the number of undescribed species in this region. We combined isolation by distance, phylogenetic analyses, and comparison of molecular distances to evaluate threshold values for the identification of candidate species among these frogs. Principal Findings In most cases, geographically distant populations belong to genetically highly distinct lineages that could be considered as candidate new species. This was not universal among the taxa studied and thus widespread species of Neotropical frogs really do exist, contrary to previous assumptions. Moreover, the many instances of paraphyly and the wide overlap between distributions of inter- and intra-specific distances reinforce the hypothesis that many cryptic species remain to be described. In our data set, pairwise genetic distances below 0.02 are strongly correlated with geographical distances. This correlation remains statistically significant until genetic distance is 0.05, with no such relation thereafter. This suggests that for higher distances allopatric and sympatric cryptic species prevail. Based on our analyses, we propose a more inclusive pairwise genetic distance of 0.03 between taxa to target lineages that could correspond to candidate species. Conclusions Using this approach, we identify 129 candidate species, two-fold greater than the 60 species included in the current study. This leads to estimates of around 170 to 460 frog taxa unrecognized in Amazonia-Guianas. Significance As a consequence the global amphibian decline detected especially in the Neotropics may be worse than realised.
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            Major Caribbean and Central American frog faunas originated by ancient oceanic dispersal.

            Approximately one-half of all species of amphibians occur in the New World tropics, which includes South America, Middle America, and the West Indies. Of those, 27% (801 species) belong to a large assemblage, the eleutherodactyline frogs, which breed out of water and lay eggs that undergo direct development on land. Their wide distribution and mode of reproduction offer potential for resolving questions in evolution, ecology, and conservation. However, progress in all of these fields has been hindered by a poor understanding of their evolutionary relationships. As a result, most of the species have been placed in a single genus, Eleutherodactylus, which is the largest among vertebrates. Our DNA sequence analysis of a major fraction of eleutherodactyline diversity revealed three large radiations of species with unexpected geographic isolation: a South American Clade (393 sp.), a Caribbean Clade (171 sp.), and a Middle American Clade (111 sp.). Molecular clock analyses reject the prevailing hypothesis that these frogs arose from land connections with North and South America and their subsequent fragmentation in the Late Cretaceous (80-70 Mya). Origin by dispersal, probably over water from South America in the early Cenozoic (47-29 million years ago, Mya), is more likely.
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              Novel relationships among hyloid frogs inferred from 12S and 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences.

              Advanced frogs (Neobatrachia) are usually divided into two taxa, Ranoidea (the firmisternal frogs) and Hyloidea (all other neobatrachians). We investigated phylogenetic relationships among several groups of Hyloidea using 12S and 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene sequences and tested explicit relationships of certain problematic hyloid taxa using a sample of 93 neobatrachians. Parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods suggest that both the Ranoidea and Hyloidea are well-supported monophyletic groups. We reject three hypotheses using parametric bootstrap simulation: (1) Dendrobatidae lies within the Ranoidea; (2) The group containing Hylidae, Pseudidae, and Centrolenidae is monophyletic; and (3) Brachycephalus is part of Bufonidae.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048d35-bb1d-5ce8-9668-537e44bd4c7e
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2019
                19 March 2019
                : 832
                : 113-133
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto de Zoología Terrestre & Museo de Zoología, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales, Quito, Ecuador
                [2 ] Unidad de Investigación, Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INABIO), Quito, Ecuador
                [3 ] Fundación Red de Protección de Bosques ECOMINGA, Fundación Oscar Efrén Reyes, Departamento de Ambiente, Baños, Ecuador
                [4 ] Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador
                [5 ] King’s College London, Department of Geography, London, UK
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Carolina Reyes-Puig ( @ )

                Academic editor: A. Crottini

                Article
                30874 urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:48667394-45d9-59e7-b534-4994863cb215 urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0C8EEC0D-CCAC-4567-9C51-D360CB2984E3
                10.3897/zookeys.832.30874
                6435602
                30930648
                Carolina Reyes-Puig, Juan Pablo Reyes-Puig, Daniel A. Velarde-Garcéz, Nicolás Dávalos, Emilio Mancero, María José Navarrete, Mario H. Yánez-Muñoz, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, Santiago R. Ron

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Amphibia
                Animalia
                Anura
                Chordata
                Strabomantidae
                Vertebrata
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Systematics
                Americas
                Andes
                Ecuador
                South America

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