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      Clinical Profiles and Outcomes of End-Stage Renal Failure Patients with Late Initiation of Renal Replacement Therapy Based on Uremic Symptoms under Intensive Renoprotective Therapies

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          Aim: This study describes the clinical profiles and outcomes of renal failure patients with late initiation of renal replacement therapies (RRT) based on uremic symptoms under intensive treatment prior to the start of RRT (IT). Methods: Thirteen patients (male 10, female 3) with end-stage renal disease who preferred to wait for the initiation of RRT until uremic symptoms appeared regardless of serum creatinine (s-Cr) and 24-hour creatinine clearance (24-hour Ccr) were chosen. All patients received IT including a low-protein diet, antihypertensive drugs including enalapril, erythropoietin and others to prevent and manage uremic states until the initiation of RRT. Clinical findings at the initiation of RRT and the outcomes after the start of RRT were examined. Results: RRT was initiated 23.6 ± 16.9 months after IT without any complication in all patients when mild uremic symptoms appeared. Uremic symptoms, blood pressure, serum albumin, potassium, calcium and urinary Cr excretion were well controlled except inorganic phosphate, hemoglobin and cardiac size. 24-hour Ccr and s-Cr were 3.4 ± 0.7 ml/min and 17.4 ± 3.8 mg/dl at initiation of RRT. The outcomes of all the patients were all well during chronic RRT. Conclusion: Intensive treatment prior to the start of RRT can diminish uremic symptoms and complications so that RRT might be initiated safely and with fewer problems, even in the face of lower 24-hour Ccr and markedly higher s-Cr.

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          The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

           Ryan Andersen,  P Arner,   (2001)
          Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level. The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02). Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
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            Cost-effectiveness of cancer screening in end-stage renal disease.

            Limited evidence suggests that persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may be at increased risk for malignancy. The appropriateness of screening procedures in this population has not been evaluated. To determine the relative cost-effectiveness of hypothetical cancer screening programs in the population with ESRD compared with the general population. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, employing the declining exponential approximation of life expectancy. Assumptions were put forth to bias the model in favor of cancer screening. Secondary comparisons were made between cancer screening and other interventions targeted to patients with ESRD. The costs per unit of survival benefit conferred by cancer screening were 1.6 to 19.3 times greater among patients with ESRD than in the general population, depending on age, sex, and race, and assumptions outlined herein. For persons with ESRD, the net gain in life expectancy from a typical cancer screening program was calculated to be 5 days or less. Similar survival gains could be obtained via a reduction of 0.02% or less in the baseline ESRD-related mortality rate. These analyses suggest that routine cancer screening in the population with ESRD is a relatively inefficient allocation of financial resources. Direction of funds toward improving the quality of dialysis could attain such an objective at substantially lower cost. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of competing risks as a consideration in the evaluation of screening strategies and other interventions targeted to patients with ESRD and to other populations with chronic diseases associated with reduced survival.
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              Low Protein Diets Are Not Needed in Chronic Renal Failure


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2002
                07 October 2002
                : 22
                : 5-6
                : 521-531
                aKidney Center and bFirst Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health (UOEH), and cNakama City Hospital, Nakama, Japan
                65290 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:521–531
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 33, Pages: 11
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