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      Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and ALOX12 and NF-κB Pathways Contribute to the Protective Effect of Baicalein on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury

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          Abstract

          This study investigates the protective effect of baicalein on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4)-induced acute liver injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Mice were orally administrated baicalein at 25 and 100 mg/kg/day for 7 consecutive days or ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) at 10 mg/kg was i.p. injected in mice at 2 and 24 h prior to CCl 4 injection or the vehicle. Our results showed that baicalein or Fer-1 supplementation significantly attenuated CCl 4 exposure-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde levels in the liver tissues and unregulated glutathione levels. Baicalein treatment inhibited the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway, activated the erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) pathway in liver tissues, and markedly improved CCl 4-induced apoptosis, inflammation and ferroptosis in liver tissues exposed with CCl 4. In vitro, baicalein treatment improved CCl 4 -induced decreases of cell viabilities and knockdown of Nrf2 and arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase ( ALOX12) genes partly abolished the protective effect of baicalein on CCl 4 -induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, our results reveal that baicalein supplementation ameliorates CCl 4-induced acute liver injury in mice by upregulating the antioxidant defense pathways and downregulating oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation and ferroptosis, which involved the activation of Nrf2 pathway and the inhibition of ALOX12 and NF-κB pathways.

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          Most cited references 73

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          Ferroptosis: an iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death.

          Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Ferroptosis: A Regulated Cell Death Nexus Linking Metabolism, Redox Biology, and Disease

            Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides to lethal levels. Emerging evidence suggests that ferroptosis represents an ancient vulnerability caused by the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into cellular membranes, and cells have developed complex systems that exploit and defend against this vulnerability in different contexts. The sensitivity to ferroptosis is tightly linked to numerous biological processes, including amino acid, iron, and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and the biosynthesis of glutathione, phospholipids, NADPH, and coenzyme Q10. Ferroptosis has been implicated in the pathological cell death associated with degenerative diseases (i.e., Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's diseases), carcinogenesis, stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and kidney degeneration in mammals and is also implicated in heat stress in plants. Ferroptosis may also have a tumor-suppressor function that could be harnessed for cancer therapy. This Primer reviews the mechanisms underlying ferroptosis, highlights connections to other areas of biology and medicine, and recommends tools and guidelines for studying this emerging form of regulated cell death.
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              Regulation of ferroptotic cancer cell death by GPX4.

              Ferroptosis is a form of nonapoptotic cell death for which key regulators remain unknown. We sought a common mediator for the lethality of 12 ferroptosis-inducing small molecules. We used targeted metabolomic profiling to discover that depletion of glutathione causes inactivation of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) in response to one class of compounds and a chemoproteomics strategy to discover that GPX4 is directly inhibited by a second class of compounds. GPX4 overexpression and knockdown modulated the lethality of 12 ferroptosis inducers, but not of 11 compounds with other lethal mechanisms. In addition, two representative ferroptosis inducers prevented tumor growth in xenograft mouse tumor models. Sensitivity profiling in 177 cancer cell lines revealed that diffuse large B cell lymphomas and renal cell carcinomas are particularly susceptible to GPX4-regulated ferroptosis. Thus, GPX4 is an essential regulator of ferroptotic cancer cell death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                antioxidants
                Antioxidants
                MDPI
                2076-3921
                18 June 2021
                June 2021
                : 10
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China; wangyang@ 123456cau.edu.cn (Y.W.); tssfj@ 123456cau.edu.cn (S.T.); sjz@ 123456cau.edu.cn (J.S.)
                [2 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Animal-Derived Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
                [3 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Diagnostic and Traceability Technologies for Food Poisoning, Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100193, China; lihui@ 123456bjcdc.org
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
                Author notes
                Article
                antioxidants-10-00976
                10.3390/antiox10060976
                8235740
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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