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      A review of viral diseases of the European wild boar: Effects of population dynamics and reservoir rôle

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          Abstract

          There has been a worldwide increase in the number and geographical spread of wild boar populations in recent decades leading to an increase in both the circulation of disease agents and greater contact with domestic animals and humans. Diseases affect the population dynamics of wildlife but the effects of most viral diseases on the European wild boar are largely unknown. Many viral diseases present in domestic pig populations are also present in wild boars where they can provide a disease reservoir, as is clearly the case with classical swine fever, but little is known about other viral diseases such as porcine circovirus diseases or hepatitis E. This review considers the current scientific knowledge of the effects of viral diseases on wild boar populations and their rôle as potential disease reservoirs. The focus is on those viral diseases of domestic swine and wild boars that are included as notifiable by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE).

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          Most cited references101

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          A novel DNA virus (TTV) associated with elevated transaminase levels in posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology.

          By means of representational difference analysis, a viral clone (N22) of 500 nucleotides was isolated from serum of a patient (TT) with posttransfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. The N22 clone showed a poor homology to any reported sequences. Oligonucleotide primers were deduced from the N22 sequence for detecting it by polymerase chain reaction. N22 sequence in serum banded at a sucrose density of 1.26 g/cm3, indicating its association with a viral particle which was designated TT virus (TTV). Since nucleic acids of TTV were sensitive to DNase I, it would be a DNA virus. TTV DNA was detected in sera from three of the five patients with posttransfusion non-A to G hepatitis, including the index case (TT). TTV DNA titers closely correlated with aminotransferase levels in the three patients. These results indicate that TTV would be a novel DNA virus with a possible capacity to induce posttransfusion non-A to G hepatitis. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.
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            Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus comparison: divergent evolution on two continents.

            Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a recently described arterivirus responsible for disease in swine worldwide. Comparative sequence analysis of 3'-terminal structural genes of the single-stranded RNA viral genome revealed the presence of two genotypic classes of PRRSV, represented by the prototype North American and European strains, VR-2332 and Lelystad virus (LV), respectively. To better understand the evolution and pathogenicity of PRRSV, we obtained the 12,066-base 5'-terminal nucleotide sequence of VR-2332, encoding the viral replication activities, and compared it to those of LV and other arteriviruses. VR-2332 and LV differ markedly in the 5' leader and sections of the open reading frame (ORF) 1a region. The ORF 1b sequence was nearly colinear but varied in similarity of proteins encoded in identified regions. Furthermore, molecular and biochemical analysis of subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) processing revealed extensive variation in the number of sgmRNAs which may be generated during infection and in the lengths of noncoding sequence between leader-body junctions and the translation-initiating codon AUG. In addition, VR-2332 and LV select different leader-body junction sites from a pool of similar candidate sites to produce sgmRNA 7, encoding the viral nucleocapsid protein. The presence of substantial variations across the entire genome and in sgmRNA processing indicates that PRRSV has evolved independently on separate continents. The near-simultaneous global emergence of a new swine disease caused by divergently evolved viruses suggests that changes in swine husbandry and management may have contributed to the emergence of PRRS.
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              The role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk.

              Tuberculosis is present in wild animal populations in North America, Europe, Africa and New Zealand. Some wild animal populations are a source of infection for domestic livestock and humans. An understanding of the potential of each wild animal population as a reservoir of infection for domestic animals is reached by determining the nature of the disease in each wild animal species, the routes of infection for domestic species and the risk of domestic animals encountering an infectious dose. The mere presence of infection in a wild animal population does not of itself provide evidence of a significant wildlife reservoir. Although at times counterintuitive, wildlife populations with high disease prevalence may not necessarily have a role in the epidemiology of disease in domestic livestock. The key concepts used in deciding whether an infected wild animal population is involved in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic livestock is illustrated by reference to six well-researched cases: the feral pig (Suis scrofa) and feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Australia, white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan, and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and other species, such as the ferret (Mustela furo), in New Zealand. A detailed analysis of Mycobacterium bovis infection in the Eurasian badger (Meles meles) in Ireland and their role as a reservoir of infection for cattle is also presented.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Vet J
                Vet. J
                Veterinary Journal (London, England : 1997)
                Elsevier Ltd.
                1090-0233
                1532-2971
                8 April 2007
                May 2008
                8 April 2007
                : 176
                : 2
                : 158-169
                Affiliations
                [a ]Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
                [b ]Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA), Departament de Sanitat i d’Anatomia Animals, Facultat de Veterinaria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 926 295 450; fax: +34 926 295 451. josefrancisco.ruiz@ 123456uclm.es
                Article
                S1090-0233(07)00088-3
                10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.02.017
                7110567
                17420149
                bddf962f-9665-4b62-8e2a-21b0a9804acf
                Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 20 February 2007
                Categories
                Article

                Veterinary medicine
                domestic pig,population dynamics,reservoir,viral diseases,wild boar
                Veterinary medicine
                domestic pig, population dynamics, reservoir, viral diseases, wild boar

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