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      Do Ethical, Authentic, and Servant Leadership Explain Variance Above and Beyond Transformational Leadership? A Meta-Analysis

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      Journal of Management
      SAGE Publications

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          Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity.

          This study provided a comprehensive examination of the full range of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Results (based on 626 correlations from 87 sources) revealed an overall validity of .44 for transformational leadership, and this validity generalized over longitudinal and multisource designs. Contingent reward (.39) and laissez-faire (-.37) leadership had the next highest overall relations; management by exception (active and passive) was inconsistently related to the criteria. Surprisingly, there were several criteria for which contingent reward leadership had stronger relations than did transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was strongly correlated with contingent reward (.80) and laissez-faire (-.65) leadership. Transformational and contingent reward leadership generally predicted criteria controlling for the other leadership dimensions, although transformational leadership failed to predict leader job performance. (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved
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            Meta-Analytic review of leader–member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues.

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              Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: a meta-analysis comparing women and men.

              A meta-analysis of 45 studies of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles found that female leaders were more transformational than male leaders and also engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviors that are a component of transactional leadership. Male leaders were generally more likely to manifest the other aspects of transactional leadership (active and passive management by exception) and laissez-faire leadership. Although these differences between male and female leaders were small, the implications of these findings are encouraging for female leadership because other research has established that all of the aspects of leadership style on which women exceeded men relate positively to leaders' effectiveness whereas all of the aspects on which men exceeded women have negative or null relations to effectiveness.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Management
                Journal of Management
                SAGE Publications
                0149-2063
                1557-1211
                August 31 2016
                August 31 2016
                :
                :
                : 014920631666546
                Article
                10.1177/0149206316665461
                bde2e045-34de-40d5-953a-ff9c171cecd8
                © 2016
                History

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