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      Endoparasites in domestic animals surrounding an Atlantic Forest remnant, in São Paulo State, Brazil Translated title: Endoparasitas em animais domésticos que vivem ao redor de uma reserva florestal, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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          Abstract

          Abstract Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP) is a significant remnant of the Atlantic Rain Forest in Brazil and is surrounded by rural properties. In that area, wild and domestic animals and humans are in close contact, which facilitates the two-way flow of infectious diseases among them. We assessed endoparasites in domestic livestock from all rural properties surrounding MDSP. There were sampled 197 cattle, 37 horses, 11 sheep, 25 swine, 21 dogs, one cat and 62 groups of chickens from 10 large private properties and 75 rural settlements. Eimeria spp. was present in almost all hosts, excepted in horses, dogs and cats. Giardia cysts were present only in cattle. Nematodes were found in swine, ruminants and horses in high prevalence. Ancylostoma, Toxocara and Sarcocystis were found in dogs. Chickens were found with coccidia, Ascaridida and Capillaria spp.. These parasites can cause malnutrition and reproductive disorders for their hosts. Strategies to prevent and control the spread of endoparasites can improve wildlife, animal and human health in this area.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo O Parque Estadual Morro do diabo (PEMD) é um significante remanescente de Mata Atlântica no Brasil, e rodeado de propriedades rurais. Nesta área humanos, animais domésticos e silvestres vivem próximos, o que facilita o fluxo de agentes infecciosas entre eles. Nós avaliamos a presença de endoparasitas, por meio de exame coproparasitológico dos animais domésticos de todas as propriedades rurais do entorno do PEMD. Foram amostrados 197 bovinos, 37 equinos, 11 ovinos, 25 suínos, 62 grupos de galinhas, 22 cães e 1 gato, residentes em 10 grandes propriedades privadas e 75 assentamentos rurais. Eimeria spp. estava presente em quase todas as espécies hospedeiras, com excessão de equinos, cães e gatos. Cistos de Giardia estavam presentes somente em bovinos. Nematodes foram encontrados em suínos, ruminantes e equinos em alta prevalência. Ancylostoma, Toxocara e Sarcocystis foram encontrados em cães. Galinhas foram encontradas com coccidia, Ascaridida e Capillaria spp.. Os parasitas encontrados podem causar má nutrição e problemas reprodutivos para seus hospedeiros. Medidas de prevenção e controle da dispersão de endoparasitas podem melhorar a condição de saúde pública, animal e ambiental nesta área.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Effects of environmental change on emerging parasitic diseases.

          Ecological disturbances exert an influence on the emergence and proliferation of malaria and zoonotic parasitic diseases, including, Leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis. Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, and transmit disease. Each species occupies a particular ecological niche and vector species sub-populations are distinct behaviourally and genetically as they adapt to man-made environments. Most zoonotic parasites display three distinct life cycles: sylvatic, zoonotic, and anthroponotic. In adapting to changed environmental conditions, including reduced non-human population and increased human population, some vectors display conversion from a primarily zoophyllic to primarily anthrophyllic orientation. Deforestation and ensuing changes in landuse, human settlement, commercial development, road construction, water control systems (dams, canals, irrigation systems, reservoirs), and climate, singly, and in combination have been accompanied by global increases in morbidity and mortality from emergent parasitic disease. The replacement of forests with crop farming, ranching, and raising small animals can create supportive habitats for parasites and their host vectors. When the land use of deforested areas changes, the pattern of human settlement is altered and habitat fragmentation may provide opportunities for exchange and transmission of parasites to the heretofore uninfected humans. Construction of water control projects can lead to shifts in such vector populations as snails and mosquitoes and their parasites. Construction of roads in previously inaccessible forested areas can lead to erosion, and stagnant ponds by blocking the flow of streams when the water rises during the rainy season. The combined effects of environmentally detrimental changes in local land use and alterations in global climate disrupt the natural ecosystem and can increase the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases to the human population.
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            Polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs.

            Respiratory disease in pigs is common in modern pork production worldwide and is often referred to as porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). PRDC is polymicrobial in nature, and results from infection with various combinations of primary and secondary respiratory pathogens. As a true multifactorial disease, environmental conditions, population size, management strategies and pig-specific factors such as age and genetics also play critical roles in the outcome of PRDC. While non-infectious factors are important in the initiation and outcome of cases of PRDC, the focus of this review is on infectious factors only. There are a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens commonly associated with PRDC including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHYO) and Pasteurella multocida (PMULT). The pathogenesis of viral respiratory disease is typically associated with destruction of the mucocilliary apparatus and with interference and decrease of the function of pulmonary alveolar and intravascular macrophages. Bacterial pathogens often contribute to PRDC by activation of inflammation via enhanced cytokine responses. With recent advancements in pathogen detection methods, the importance of polymicrobial disease has become more evident, and identification of interactions of pathogens and their mechanisms of disease potentiation has become a topic of great interest. For example, combined infection of pigs with typically low pathogenic organisms like PCV2 and MHYO results in severe respiratory disease. Although the body of knowledge has advanced substantially in the last 15 years, much more needs to be learned about the pathogenesis and best practices for control of swine respiratory disease outbreaks caused by concurrent infection of two or more pathogens. This review discusses the latest findings on polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs.
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              The Impact of Infection and Disease on Animal Populations: Implications for Conservation Biology

               Marilyn Scott (1988)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbpv
                Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária
                Rev. Bras. Parasitol. Vet.
                Colégio Brasileiro de Parasitologia Veterinária (Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil )
                0103-846X
                1984-2961
                February 2018
                : 27
                : 1
                : 13-19
                Affiliations
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia orgdiv2Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde Animal Brazil
                Manaus orgnameFundação Oswaldo Cruz orgdiv1Instituto Leonidas & Maria Deane Brazil
                São Paulo São Paulo orgnameUniversidade de São Paulo orgdiv1Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia orgdiv2Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Saúde Animal Brazil
                Bandeirantes orgnameUniversidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná orgdiv1Centro de Ciências Agrárias orgdiv2Setor de Veterinária e Produção Animal Brazil
                Article
                S1984-29612018000100013
                10.1590/s1984-29612017078
                29641793

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 7
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