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      Is Open Access

      The Macrofungi Collection Consortium

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          Abstract

          Premise of the Study

          The Macrofungi Collection Consortium (Ma CC) is a digitization project funded by the National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections program. The main scientific objective of the Ma CC project was to provide baseline data for determining the extent and distribution of macrofungal diversity.

          Methods and Results

          Between 2012 and 2017, 39 participating institutions digitized approximately 1,250,000 specimens of macrofungi from U.S. herbaria. These newly digitized data, combined with existing data and contributions from the Microfungi Collections Consortium, have created a database of approximately 3.4 million specimen records that are shared online through MyCoPortal, a Symbiota‐based data portal. In addition to the digitized herbarium specimen data, MyCoPortal also contains descriptions, illustrations, and observational records.

          Discussion

          The database of digitized specimen data created through this project is a resource for both amateur and professional mycologists. The data provided through MyCoPortal will provide a foundation for a comprehensive Mycoflora of North America. Such a project is now under development as a collaboration between the professional and amateur mycological communities, with the goal of documenting the macrofungi of North America with gene sequences as well as phenotypic descriptions and images.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 15

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          Rapid and recent changes in fungal fruiting patterns.

          Information on responses of higher organisms to climate change is dominated by events in spring. Far less is known about autumnal events and virtually nothing about communities of microorganisms. We analyzed autumnal fruiting patterns of macrofungi over the past 56 years and found that average first fruiting date of 315 species is earlier, while last fruiting date is later. Fruiting of mycorrhizal species that associate with both deciduous and coniferous trees is delayed in deciduous, but not in coniferous, forests. Many species are now fruiting twice a year, indicating increased mycelial activity and possibly greater decay rates in ecosystems.
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            Mushroom fruiting and climate change.

            Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using approximately 34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940-2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.
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              Invasive belowground mutualists of woody plants

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                bthiers@nybg.org
                Journal
                Appl Plant Sci
                Appl Plant Sci
                10.1002/(ISSN)2168-0450
                APS3
                Applications in Plant Sciences
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2168-0450
                24 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 6
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1111/aps3.2018.6.issue-2 )
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Research and Conservation Division New York Botanical Garden Bronx New York 10458 USA
                Author notes
                [* ] Author for correspondence: bthiers@ 123456nybg.org
                Article
                APS31021
                10.1002/aps3.1021
                5851562
                © 2018 Thiers and Halling. Applications in Plant Sciences is published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Botanical Society of America.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 7, Words: 5063
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: National Science Foundation
                Award ID: DBI‐1206197
                Categories
                Application Article
                Application Articles
                Invited Special Article
                For the Special Issue: Green Digitization: Online Botanical Collections Data Answering Real‐World Questions
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                aps31021
                February 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.3.2.2 mode:remove_FC converted:14.03.2018

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