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      How Do Happiness at Work and Perceived Organizational Support Affect Teachers’ Mental Health Through Job Satisfaction During the COVID-19 Pandemic?


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          The role of happiness at work (HW) on mental health (MH) in the education sector in Indonesia has not been widely examined. Additionally, the inconsistent results of previous studies on the relationship between job satisfaction (JS) and MH have led to the uncertainty of JS being a mediator. This study aims to fill the gap in knowledge by examining the effect of HW and perceived organizational support (POS) on teachers’ MH, with JS as a mediator.


          This research employed a quantitative approach with a cross-sectional study design, using partial least squares structural equation modeling with SmartPLS software. The research participants included 490 teachers in the Special Capital Region of Jakarta province.


          The results indicate that HW is the highest predictor of teachers’ MH, and POS is the highest predictor of JS. Another notable finding is that JS was found to have a positive but not significant effect on teachers’ MH. However, it did impact the failure of the mediation relationship of this research model, which did not align with previous studies’ findings.


          Schools must pay attention to HW to improve teachers’ MH. Additionally, they should provide support to teachers to increase their JS, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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          Most cited references67

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          A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling

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            Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and Truths about Mediation Analysis

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              A 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey: construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.

              Regression methods were used to select and score 12 items from the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to reproduce the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales in the general US population (n=2,333). The resulting 12-item short-form (SF-12) achieved multiple R squares of 0.911 and 0.918 in predictions of the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and SF-36 Mental Component Summary scores, respectively. Scoring algorithms from the general population used to score 12-item versions of the two components (Physical Components Summary and Mental Component Summary) achieved R squares of 0.905 with the SF-36 Physical Component Summary and 0.938 with SF-36 Mental Component Summary when cross-validated in the Medical Outcomes Study. Test-retest (2-week)correlations of 0.89 and 0.76 were observed for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, respectively, in the general US population (n=232). Twenty cross-sectional and longitudinal tests of empirical validity previously published for the 36-item short-form scales and summary measures were replicated for the 12-item Physical Component Summary and the 12-item Mental Component Summary, including comparisons between patient groups known to differ or to change in terms of the presence and seriousness of physical and mental conditions, acute symptoms, age and aging, self-reported 1-year changes in health, and recovery for depression. In 14 validity tests involving physical criteria, relative validity estimates for the 12-item Physical Component Summary ranged from 0.43 to 0.93 (median=0.67) in comparison with the best 36-item short-form scale. Relative validity estimates for the 12-item Mental Component Summary in 6 tests involving mental criteria ranged from 0.60 to 107 (median=0.97) in relation to the best 36-item short-form scale. Average scores for the 2 summary measures, and those for most scales in the 8-scale profile based on the 12-item short-form, closely mirrored those for the 36-item short-form, although standard errors were nearly always larger for the 12-item short-form.

                Author and article information

                Psychol Res Behav Manag
                Psychol Res Behav Manag
                Psychology Research and Behavior Management
                19 April 2022
                : 15
                : 939-951
                [1 ]Faculty of Education, Universitas Pelita Harapan , Jakarta, Indonesia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Niko Sudibjo, Faculty of Education, Universitas Pelita Harapan , Jakarta, Indonesia, Tel +62 21 2552 5161, Fax +62 21 2553 5163, Email niko.sudibjo@uph.edu
                © 2022 Sudibjo and Manihuruk.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 13, References: 71, Pages: 13
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                happiness at work,job satisfaction,mental health,perceived organizational support,teacher


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