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      Characteristics of Selected Antioxidative and Bioactive Compounds in Meat and Animal Origin Products

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          Meat and meat products have a high nutritional value. Besides major components, meat is rich in bioactive components, primarily taurine, l-carnitine, choline, alpha-lipoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, glutathione, creatine, coenzyme Q10 and bioactive peptides. Many studies have reported their antioxidant and health-promoting properties connected with their lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory activity and protecting the organism against oxidative stress. The antioxidant activity of meat components results, among others, from the capability of scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, forming complexes with metal ions and protecting cells against damage. This review is focused to gather accurate information about meat components with antioxidant and biological activity.

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          Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential.

          Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food. It is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age. How do the biochemical properties of LA relate to its biological effects? Herein, we review the molecular mechanisms of LA discovered using cell and animal models, and the effects of LA on human subjects. Though LA has long been touted as an antioxidant, it has also been shown to improve glucose and ascorbate handling, increase eNOS activity, activate Phase II detoxification via the transcription factor Nrf2, and lower expression of MMP-9 and VCAM-1 through repression of NF-kappa B. LA and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid, may use their chemical properties as a redox couple to alter protein conformations by forming mixed disulfides. Beneficial effects are achieved with low micromolar levels of LA, suggesting that some of its therapeutic potential extends beyond the strict definition of an antioxidant. Current trials are investigating whether these beneficial properties of LA make it an appropriate treatment not just for diabetes, but also for the prevention of vascular disease, hypertension, and inflammation.
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            Choline and betaine in health and disease.

             Per Ueland (2011)
            Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Pre-and postnatal choline availability is important for neurodevelopment in rodents. Choline is oxidized to betaine that serves as an osmoregulator and is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, which links choline and betaine to the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism. Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. Choline or betaine supplementation in humans reduces concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy), and plasma betaine is a strong predictor of plasma tHcy in individuals with low plasma concentration of folate and other B vitamins (B₂, B₆, and B₁₂) in combination TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 C->T polymorphism. The link to one-carbon metabolism and the recent availability of food composition data have motivated studies on choline and betaine as risk factors of chronic diseases previously studied in relation to folate and homocysteine status. High intake and plasma level of choline in the mother seems to afford reduced risk of neural tube defects. Intake of choline and betaine shows no consistent relation to cancer or cardiovascular risk or risk factors, whereas an unfavorable cardiovascular risk factor profile was associated with high choline and low betaine concentrations in plasma. Thus, choline and betaine showed opposite relations with key components of metabolic syndrome, suggesting a disruption of mitochondrial choline oxidation to betaine as part of the mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome.
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              Antioxidant activity of peptides obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment.

              Hydrolysates obtained from porcine myofibrillar proteins by protease treatment (papain or actinase E) exhibited high antioxidant activity in a linolenic acid peroxidation system induced by Fe(2+). Hydrolysates produced by both papain and actinase E showed higher activities at pH 7.1 than at pH 5.4. The antioxidant activity of the papain hydrolysate was almost the same as that of vitamin E at pH 7.0. These hydrolysates possessed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and chelating activity toward metal ions. Antioxidant peptides were separated from the papain hydrolysate by ion exchange chromatography. The acidic fraction obtained by this method exhibited higher activity than the neutral or basic fractions. Antioxidant peptides in the acidic fraction were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography on an ODS column and shown to possess the structures DSGVT, IEAEGE, DAQEKLE, EELDNALN, and VPSIDDQEELM. The DAQEKLE peptide showed the highest activity among these peptides.

                Author and article information

                Antioxidants (Basel)
                Antioxidants (Basel)
                22 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 8
                : 9
                Department of Gastronomy Sciences and Functional Foods, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Poznań University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: anna.gramza@ 123456up.poznan.pl ; Tel.: +48-61-848-7331
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



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