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      On the relative importance of space and environment in farmland bird community assembly

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          Abstract

          The relative contribution of ecological processes in shaping metacommunity dynamics in heavily managed landscapes is still unclear. Here we used two complementary approaches to disentangle the role of environment and spatial effect in farmland bird community assembly in an intensive agro-ecosystem. We hypothesized that the interaction between habitat patches and dispersal should play a major role in such unstable and unpredictable environments. First, we used a metacommunity patterns analysis to characterize species co-occurrences and identify the main drivers of community assembly; secondly, variation partitioning was used to disentangle environmental and geographical factors (such as dispersal limitation) on community structure and composition. We used high spatial resolution data on bird community structure and composition distributed among 260 plots in an agricultural landscape. Species were partitioned into functional classes, and point count stations were classified according to landscape characteristics before applying metacommunity and partitioning analyses within each. Overall we could explain around 20% of the variance in species composition in our system, revealing that stochasticity remains very important at this scale. However, this proportion varies depending on the scale of analysis, and reveals potentially important contributions of environmental filtering and dispersal. These conclusions are further reinforced when the analysis was deconstructed by bird functional classes or by landscape habitat classes, underlining trait-related filters, thus reinforcing the idea that wooded areas in these agroecosystems may represent important sources for a specific group of bird species. Our analysis shows that deconstructing the species assemblages into separate functional groups and types of landscapes, along with a combination of analysis strategies, can help in understanding the mechanisms driving community assembly.

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          Ecological and evolutionary traps

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            Community patterns in source-sink metacommunities.

            We present a model of a source-sink competitive metacommunity, defined as a regional set of communities in which local diversity is maintained by dispersal. Although the conditions of local and regional coexistence have been well defined in such systems, no study has attempted to provide clear predictions of classical community-wide patterns. Here we provide predictions for species richness, species relative abundances, and community-level functional properties (productivity and space occupation) at the local and regional scales as functions of the proportion of dispersal between communities. Local (alpha) diversity is maximal at an intermediate level of dispersal, whereas between-community (beta) and regional (gamma) diversity decline as dispersal increases because of increased homogenization of the metacommunity. The relationships between local and regional species richness and the species rank abundance distributions are strongly affected by the level of dispersal. Local productivity and space occupation tend to decline as dispersal increases, resulting in either a hump-shaped or a positive relationship between species richness and productivity, depending on the scale considered (local or regional). These effects of dispersal are buffered by decreasing species dispersal success. Our results provide a niche-based alternative to the recent neutral-metacommunity model and have important implications for conservation biology and landscape management.
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              Body size and dispersal mode as key traits determining metacommunity structure of aquatic organisms.

              Relationships between traits of organisms and the structure of their metacommunities have so far mainly been explored with meta-analyses. We compared metacommunities of a wide variety of aquatic organism groups (12 groups, ranging from bacteria to fish) in the same set of 99 ponds to minimise biases inherent to meta-analyses. In the category of passive dispersers, large-bodied groups showed stronger spatial patterning than small-bodied groups suggesting an increasing impact of dispersal limitation with increasing body size. Metacommunities of organisms with the ability to fly (i.e. insect groups) showed a weaker imprint of dispersal limitation than passive dispersers with similar body size. In contrast, dispersal movements of vertebrate groups (fish and amphibians) seemed to be mainly confined to local connectivity patterns. Our results reveal that body size and dispersal mode are important drivers of metacommunity structure and these traits should therefore be considered when developing a predictive framework for metacommunity dynamics. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 March 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Centre d'Etudes Biologiques de Chizé (CEBC), UMR 7372 CNRS & Université de La Rochelle, Beauvoir sur Niort, France
                [2 ] CBGP, INRA, CIRAD, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France
                [3 ] Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, EPHE, Place Eugène Bataillon, Montpellier Cedex 05, France
                [4 ] MARBEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Montpellier, France
                [5 ] LTSER “Zone Atelier Plaine & Val de Sèvre”, Beauvoir sur Niort, France
                Irstea, FRANCE
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have the following interest: Nicolas Mouquet is currently an editor with PLOS One. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS One policies on sharing data and materials.

                [¤]

                Current address: Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden

                Article
                PONE-D-18-29474
                10.1371/journal.pone.0213360
                6411160
                30856193
                be21438c-6b3a-436f-8739-18cf1cdba0c6
                © 2019 Henckel et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: ERA-Net BiodivERsA - Farmland project
                Funded by: French National Research Agency (ANR)
                Funding for this work was provided by the ERA-Net BiodivERsA and the French National Research Agency (ANR), in the framework of the European FarmLand project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Vertebrates
                Amniotes
                Birds
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Community Structure
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Community Structure
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Community Assembly
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Community Ecology
                Community Assembly
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Trees
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Agriculture
                Crop Science
                Crops
                Cereal Crops
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Habitats
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecosystems
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Environmental Geography
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information file.

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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