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      A prospective study of the clinical outcomes and prognosis associated with comorbid COPD in the atrial fibrillation population

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          Abstract

          Background

          Patients with COPD are at higher risk of presenting with atrial fibrillation (AF). Information about clinical outcomes and optimal medical treatment of AF in the setting of COPD remains missing. We aimed to describe the prevalence of COPD in a sizeable cohort of real-world AF patients belonging to the same healthcare area and to examine the relationship between comorbid COPD and AF prognosis.

          Methods

          Prospective analysis performed in a specific healthcare area. Data were obtained from several sources within the “data warehouse of the Galician Healthcare Service” using multiple analytical tools. Statistical analyses were completed using SPSS 19 and STATA 14.0.

          Results

          A total of 7,990 (2.08%) patients with AF were registered throughout 2013 in our healthcare area (n=348,985). Mean age was 76.83±10.51 years and 937 (11.7%) presented with COPD. COPD patients had a higher mean CHA 2DS 2-VASc (4.21 vs 3.46; P=0.02) and received less beta-blocker and more digoxin therapy than those without COPD. During a mean follow-up of 707±103 days, 1,361 patients (17%) died. All-cause mortality was close to two fold higher in the COPD group (28.3% vs 15.5%; P<0.001). Independent predictive factors for all-cause mortality were age, heart failure, diabetes, previous thromboembolic event, dementia, COPD, and oral anticoagulation (OA). There were nonsignificant differences in thromboembolic events (1.7% vs 1.5%; P=0.7), but the rate of hemorrhagic events was significantly higher in the COPD group (3.3% vs 1.9%; P=0.004). Age, valvular AF, OA, and COPD were independent predictive factors for hemorrhagic events. In COPD patients, age, heart failure, vasculopathy, lack of OA, and lack of beta-blocker use were independent predictive factors for all-cause mortality.

          Conclusion

          AF patients with COPD have a higher incidence of adverse events with significantly increased rates of all-cause mortality and hemorrhagic events than AF patients without COPD. However, comorbid COPD was not associated with differences in cardiovascular death or stroke rate. OA and beta-blocker treatment presented a risk reduction in mortality while digoxin use exerted a neutral effect.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper.

           W MacNee,  ,  B Celli (2004)
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            Oxidative stress in COPD.

            Oxidative stress is now recognized as a major predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of COPD. Existing therapies for COPD are ineffective at halting disease progression, with bronchodilators being the mainstay of pharmacotherapy, providing symptomatic relief only. It is, therefore, important for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which oxidative stress drives disease pathogenesis to develop novel and more effective therapies. Antioxidant capacity in COPD is substantially reduced as a result of cigarette smoking and exacerbations, with oxidative stress persisting long after the cessation of cigarette smoking or exacerbation, due to the continued production of reactive oxygen species from endogenous sources. We discuss (1) how oxidative stress arises in the lung, (2) how it is neutralized, (3) what genetic factors may predispose to the development of COPD, and (4) how this impacts inflammation and autoimmunity in the development of emphysema and small airways disease. Finally, various strategies have been considered to neutralize the increased oxidative burden present in COPD. This review highlights why current antioxidant strategies have so far failed and what promising alternatives are on the horizon. Moreover, a number of studies have shown that there is no single "magic bullet" to combat oxidative stress, but instead a combination therapy, targeting oxidative stress in the various subcellular compartments, may prove to be more effective in COPD.
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              Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease 2017 Report: GOLD Executive Summary.

              This Executive Summary of the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (GOLD) 2017 Report focuses primarily on the revised and novel parts of the document. The most significant changes include: 1) the assessment of COPD has been refined to separate the spirometric assessment from symptom evaluation. ABCD groups are now proposed to be derived exclusively from patient symptoms and their history of exacerbations; 2) for each of the groups A to D, escalation strategies for pharmacological treatments are proposed; 3) the concept of de-escalation of therapy is introduced in the treatment assessment scheme; 4) nonpharmacologic therapies are comprehensively presented and; 5) the importance of comorbid conditions in managing COPD is reviewed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2019
                12 February 2019
                : 14
                : 371-380
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, moirmanero@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]IDIS (Instituto para el Desarrollo e Integración de la Salud), Madrid, Spain, moirmanero@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]CIBERCV (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares), Madrid, Spain, moirmanero@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Xerencia de Xestión Integrada, Hospital Universitario Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
                [5 ]Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante, Sant Joan d’Alacant, Spain
                [6 ]Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero, Hospital Clínico Universitario, Travesía da Choupana SN, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain, Tel +34 61 690 3275, Fax +34 98 195 0000, Email moirmanero@ 123456gmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-14-371
                10.2147/COPD.S174443
                6388772
                © 2019 Rodríguez-Mañero et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                stroke, atrial fibrillation, copd, cha2ds2-vasc, big data

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