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      Prevalence and Factors Associated with Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

      , 1 , 2

      Advances in Hematology

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Background

          In pregnancy, anemia is an important factor associated with an increased risk of maternal, fetal, and neonatal mortality, poor pregnancy outcomes, and impaired cognitive development, particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

          Method

          A cross-sectional health facility based study was conducted on 284 pregnant women to assess prevalence and factors associated with anemia at St. Paul's Hospital Millennium Medical College from June to August 2014. Data on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire by interview and review of medical records. About 4 ml of venous blood was collected from each subject for peripheral blood film and complete blood counts (CBC). Binary Logistic regression analysis had been used to check for association between dependent and independent variables. In all cases, P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

          Result

          The prevalence of anemia was found to be 11.6% (95 % CI; 7.8%-14.8%). Pregnant women in the second [AOR (95% CI), 6.72 (1.17-38.45), and P=0.03] and third trimester [AOR (95% CI), 8.31 (1.24-55.45), and P=0.029] were more likely to be anemic when compared to pregnant women in their first trimester. Pregnant women who did not receive iron/folic acid supplementation [AOR (95%CI), 4.03(1.49-10.92), and P=0.01] were more likely to be anemic when compared to pregnant women who did take supplementations.

          Conclusion

          In this study the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was low compared to the findings of others. Gestational age (trimester) and iron/folic acid supplementation were statistically associated with anemia. Therefore, iron supplementation and health education to create awareness about the importance of early booking for antenatal care are recommended to reduce anemia.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome.

           Lindsay Allen (2000)
          This article reviews current knowledge of the effects of maternal anemia and iron deficiency on pregnancy outcome. A considerable amount of information remains to be learned about the benefits of maternal iron supplementation on the health and iron status of the mother and her child during pregnancy and postpartum. Current knowledge indicates that iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and subsequent low birth weight, and possibly for inferior neonatal health. Data are inadequate to determine the extent to which maternal anemia might contribute to maternal mortality. Even for women who enter pregnancy with reasonable iron stores, iron supplements improve iron status during pregnancy and for a considerable length of time postpartum, thus providing some protection against iron deficiency in the subsequent pregnancy. Mounting evidence indicates that maternal iron deficiency in pregnancy reduces fetal iron stores, perhaps well into the first year of life. This deserves further exploration because of the tendency of infants to develop iron deficiency anemia and because of the documented adverse consequences of this condition on infant development. The weight of evidence supports the advisability of routine iron supplementation during pregnancy.
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            Magnitude of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Shalla Woreda, West Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

            Background Anemia during pregnancy is a common problem in developing countries and affects both the mother's and her child's health. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women. Methods Facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted from June to August, 2011 on 374 pregnant women. Mothers who came for ANC during the study period and who met the inclusion criteria were interviewed and a capillary blood sample was taken. Hemoglobin level was determined by using HemoCue photometer, and interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were cleaned, coded and fed into SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Result The mean hemoglobin concentration was 12.05±1.5 g/dl and prevalence of anemia was 36.6%. Family sizes (COR=2.67, CI (1.65, 4.32), third trimester (COR=1.45, CI (1.11, 2.23), meat consumption <1x/wk (COR=3.47, CI (1.58, 7.64) and pica (COR=2.33, CI (1.52, 3.58) were significantly associated with anemia. Having five or more children (AOR=5.2, CI [1.29, 21.09]), intake of vegetables and fruits less than once per day (AOR= 6.7, CI [2.49, 17.89]), intake of tea always after meal (AOR = 12.83.CI [45-28.9]), and recurrence of illness during pregnancy (AOR=7.3, CI [2.12–25.39]) were factors associated with anemia. Conclusion This study showed that anemia is a moderate public health problem. Less frequent meat and vegetable consumption, parity ≥5 are risk factors for anemia. Therefore, reducing parity, taking balanced diet and use of mosquito nets during pregnancy are recommended.
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              Anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia: prevalence, severity and associated risk factors

              Background Anemia is a significant public health problem in developing countries, particularly in pregnant women. It may complicate pregnancy, sometimes resulting in tragic outcomes. There is a lack of information on the magnitude of anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia. The aim of this study is, therefore, to determine the prevalence of anemia and assess associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at Bisidimo Hospital in Southeast Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study, involving 258 pregnant women, was conducted from March to June 2013. Socio-demographic, medical and obstetric data of the study participants were collected using structured questionnaire. Hemoglobin was measured using a hematology analyzer and faecal specimens were examined to detect intestinal parasites. Anemia in pregnancy was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dl. Results Overall, prevalence of anemia was 27.9%, of which 55% had mild anemia. Rural residence (AOR =3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.4), intestinal parasitic infection (IPI) (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3-4.8) and history of heavy cycle (AOR =2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-1.7) were predictors of anemia. Conclusions This study showed moderate prevalence of anemia among the pregnant women, with a sizable proportion having severe anemia. Routine testing of pregnant women for IPIs and creating awareness on factors predisposing to anemia is recommended.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Adv Hematol
                Adv Hematol
                AH
                Advances in Hematology
                Hindawi
                1687-9104
                1687-9112
                2018
                29 August 2018
                : 2018
                Affiliations
                1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
                2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Elvira Grandone

                Article
                10.1155/2018/3942301
                6136568
                Copyright © 2018 Angesom Gebreweld and Aster Tsegaye.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Wollo University
                Funded by: Addis Ababa University
                Categories
                Research Article

                Hematology

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