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      Características sociodemográficas de la población adulta de la parroquia Cumbe, Cuenca-Ecuador Translated title: Sociodemographic characteristics of the adult population of the parish Cumbe, Cuenca-Ecuador

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          Abstract

          Introducción: El crecimiento económico y social de Latinoamérica ha variado a través de su historia, así como la percepción de la importancia de factores socioeconómicos en el proceso salud-enfermedad. Ecuador es un país latinoamericano que se ha visto envuelto en este crecimiento y en cambios en la pirámide poblacional y todos los factores que a ella respecta, por lo cual el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar las características sociodemográficas de la población adulta de Cumbe-Ecuador. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio de campo, descriptivo y transversal con muestreo aleatorio multietápico, en el cual se evaluaron 374 individuos adultos de ambos sexos, residentes de la parroquia rural de Cumbe de la ciudad de Cuenca, provincia del Azuay. Se les realizó historia clínica que abarca las características sociodemográficas y examen físico de manera integral. Las variables cualitativas fueron expresadas en frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: Se evaluaron a 374 individuos, de los cuales el 66,31% (n=248) perteneció al sexo femenino. A medida que aumentó la edad se redujo el nivel de estatus socioeconómico. Al evaluar el nivel educativo, se observó que la educación primaria fue más frecuente tanto en la pobreza extrema (68,4%) como la clase obrera (63,9%), mientras que en la clase media y clase media-alta tuvo mayor frecuencia de estudios superiores con 60% y 41,8% respectivamente, con una asociación estadísticamente significativa (χ²=66,047; p<0,001). Conclusión: Se observa una distribución sociodemográfica poblacional acorde a las cifras de la Provincia de Azuay, con un mayor porcentaje de individuos del sexo femenino, una población joven, con alta frecuencia de sujetos casados, de clase obrera y con nivel educativo principalmente por debajo de la educación superior. Por lo que se deben aumentar los esfuerzos políticos en la búsqueda de una población con un mayor nivel educativo y socioeconómico.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: The economic and social growth of Latin America has varied throughout its history, as well as the perception of the importance of socioeconomic factors in the health-disease process. Ecuador is a Latin American country that has been involved in this growth and changes in the population pyramid and all the factors that affect it, so the objective of this study was to evaluate the socio-demographic characteristics of the adult population of Cumbe-Ecuador. Materials and methods: A field, descriptive, cross-sectional study with multistaged randomized sampling was carried out in 374 adults of both genders, residents of the rural parish of Cumbe of Cuenca city, province of Azuay. A clinical history covering the socio-demographic characteristics and physical examination was performed in an integral manner. Qualitative variables were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies. Results: Of the total of 374 individuals evaluated, 66.31% (n = 248) were female. As the age increased, the level of socioeconomic status was reduced. In evaluating the educational level, it was observed that primary education was more frequent in both extreme poverty (68.4%) and the working class (63.9%), while in the middle and upper-middle classes it was higher frequency of higher studies with 60% and 41.8% respectively, with a statistically significant association (χ2=66.047; p<0.001). Conclusion: In Cumbe was found a population-based sociodemographic distribution according to the Azuay Province, with a higher percentage of females, a young population, with a high frequency of married subjects, of working class and educational level mainly below higher education. Therefore, political efforts should be increased in the search for a population with a higher educational and socioeconomic level.

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          The effect of maternal child marriage on morbidity and mortality of children under 5 in India: cross sectional study of a nationally representative sample

          Objective To assess associations between maternal child marriage (marriage before age 18) and morbidity and mortality of infants and children under 5 in India. Design Cross-sectional analyses of nationally representative household sample. Generalised estimating equation models constructed to assess associations. Adjusted models included maternal and child demographics and maternal body mass index as covariates. Setting India. Population Women aged 15-49 years (n=124 385); data collected in 2005-6 through National Family Health Survey-3. Data about child morbidity and mortality reported by participants. Analyses restricted to births in past five years reported by ever married women aged 15-24 years (n=19 302 births to 13 396 mothers). Main outcome measures In under 5s: mortality related infectious diseases in the past two weeks (acute respiratory infection, diarrhoea); malnutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight); infant (age <1 year) and child (1-5 years) mortality; low birth weight (<2500 kg). Results The majority of births (73%; 13 042/19 302) were to mothers married as minors. Although bivariate analyses showed significant associations between maternal child marriage and infant and child diarrhoea, malnutrition (stunted, wasted, underweight), low birth weight, and mortality, only stunting (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.33) and underweight (1.24, 1.14 to 1.36) remained significant in adjusted analyses. We noted no effect of maternal child marriage on health of boys versus girls. Conclusions The risk of malnutrition is higher in young children born to mothers married as minors than in those born to women married at a majority age. Further research should examine how early marriage affects food distribution and access for children in India.
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            CARMELA: assessment of cardiovascular risk in seven Latin American cities.

            This cross-sectional, population-based observational study using stratified multistage sampling assessed the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and carotid plaques and measured carotid intima-media thickness in individuals living in major cities in 7 Latin American countries. The study comprised individuals (n=11,550) aged 25 to 64 years, living in Barquisimeto, Bogota, Buenos Aires, Lima, Mexico City, Quito, and Santiago. Data on anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and smoking status were collected through household interviews and clinical, biochemical, and sonographic measurements. The overall prevalence rates (ranges across cities) were as follows: hypertension (> or = 140/90 mm Hg or pharmacologic treatment), 18% (9%-29%); hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > or = 240 mg/dL), 14% (6%-20%); diabetes (glycemia > or = 126 mg/dL or self-reported diabetes), 7% (4%-9%); metabolic syndrome, 20% (14%-27%); obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2), 23% (18%-27%); smoking, 30% (22%-45%); and plaque, 8% (5%-14%). The mean intima-media thickness was 0.65 mm (0.60-0.74 mm). The prevalence of hypertension mirrored the world average in 3 cities but was lower in the rest. Hypercholesterolemia was highly prevalent even in countries of different socioeconomic levels. The prevalence of diabetes was similar to that in the developed countries. Tobacco use in women living in Santiago and Buenos Aires was among the world's highest. Intima-media thickness and carotid plaque prevalences varied widely.
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              Epidemiology of fetal death in Latin America.

              To identify risk factors associated with fetal death, and to measure the rate and the risk of fetal death in a large cohort of Latin American women. We analyzed 837,232 singleton births recorded in the Perinatal Information System Database of the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development (CLAP) between 1985 and 1997. The risk factors analyzed included fetal factors and maternal sociodemographic, obstetric, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted relative risks were obtained, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, through multiple logistic regression models based on the method of generalized estimating equations. There were 14,713 fetal deaths (rate=17.6 per 1000 births). The fetal death risk increased exponentially as pregnancy advanced. Thirty-seven percent of all fetal deaths occurred at term, and 64% were antepartum. The main risk factors associated with fetal death were lack of antenatal care (adjusted relative risk [aRR]=4.26; 95% confidence interval, 3.84-4.71) and small for gestational age (aRR=3.26; 95% CI, 3.13-3.40). In addition, the risk of death during the intrapartum period was almost tenfold higher for fetuses in noncephalic presentations. Other risk factors associated with stillbirth were: third trimester bleeding, eclampsia, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, syphilis, gestational diabetes mellitus, Rh isoimmunization, interpregnancy interval or =4, maternal age > or =35 years, illiteracy, premature rupture of membranes, body mass index > or =29.0, maternal anemia, previous abortion, and previous adverse perinatal outcomes. There are several preventable factors that should be dealt with in order to reduce the gap in fetal mortality between Latin America and developed countries.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                avft
                Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica
                AVFT
                Sociedad Venezolana de Farmacológia y Farmacológia Clínica y Terapéutica. Escuela de Medicina; José Maria Vargas. Cátedra de Farmacológia, piso 3, esquina san jacinto, San José Caracas (Caracas, DF, Venezuela )
                0798-0264
                April 2017
                : 36
                : 2
                : 57-64
                Affiliations
                [05] orgnameUniversidad de Cuenca República del Ecuador
                [03] Cuenca orgnameUniversidad Católica de Cuenca orgdiv1Facultad de Psicología Clínica República del Ecuador
                [01] Cuenca orgnameUniversidad Católica de Cuenca orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina República del Ecuador
                [02] Ciudad de Cuenca orgnameMinisterio de Salud Pública orgdiv1Centro de Salud de Baños República del Ecuador
                [04] orgnameMinisterio de Salud Pública orgdiv1Centro de Salud El Pangui República del Ecuador
                [06] orgnameUniversidad del Zulia orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Centro de Investigaciones Endocrino Metabólicas Dr. Félix Gómez Venezuela
                Article
                S0798-02642017000200005 S0798-0264(17)03600200005
                be3dfdb2-5a14-46c4-af7a-db74c3e4be3e

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 31, Pages: 8
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                SciELO Venezuela

                Categories
                Trabajos Originales

                nivel educativo,socioeconomic status,educational level,work activity,rural population,estatus socioeconómico,actividad laboral,población rural

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