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      A randomised controlled trial for the evaluation of risk for type 2 diabetes in hypertensive patients receiving thiazide diuretics: Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study

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          Thiazide diuretics are one of the first choice antihypertensives but not optimally utilised because of concerns regarding their adverse effects on glucose metabolism. The Diuretics In the Management of Essential hypertension (DIME) study was designed, for the first time, to assess the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with essential hypertension during antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics compared to those not treated with diuretics.


          Multicentre, unblinded, pragmatic, randomised, controlled trial with blinded assessment of end points and intention-to-treat analysis that was started in 2004 and finished in 2012.


          Hypertension clinics at 106 sites in Japan, including general practitioners’ offices and teaching hospitals.


          Non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension.


          Antihypertensive treatment with low-dose thiazide diuretics at 12.5 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazide or equivalent (Diuretics group) or that without thiazide diuretics (No-diuretics group).

          Main outcome

          The primary outcome was new onset of type 2 diabetes diagnosed according to WHO criteria and the criteria of Japanese Society of Diabetes.


          1130 patients were allocated to Diuretics (n=544) or No-diuretics group (n=586). Complete end point information was collected for 1049 participants after a median follow-up of 4.4 years. Diabetes developed in 25 (4.6%) participants in the Diuretics group, as compared with 29 (4.9%) in the No-diuretics group (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.55 to 1.58; p=0.800).


          Antihypertensive treatment with thiazide diuretics at low doses may not be associated with an increased risk for new onset of type 2 diabetes. This result might suggest safety of use of low doses of thiazide diuretics.

          Trial registration number

          ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00131846.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 18

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          Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT).

          Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is unknown. To determine whether treatment with a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial conducted from February 1994 through March 2002. A total of 33 357 participants aged 55 years or older with hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor from 623 North American centers. Participants were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone, 12.5 to 25 mg/d (n = 15 255); amlodipine, 2.5 to 10 mg/d (n = 9048); or lisinopril, 10 to 40 mg/d (n = 9054) for planned follow-up of approximately 4 to 8 years. The primary outcome was combined fatal CHD or nonfatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent-to-treat. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure [HF], and peripheral arterial disease). Mean follow-up was 4.9 years. The primary outcome occurred in 2956 participants, with no difference between treatments. Compared with chlorthalidone (6-year rate, 11.5%), the relative risks (RRs) were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for amlodipine (6-year rate, 11.3%) and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.91-1.08) for lisinopril (6-year rate, 11.4%). Likewise, all-cause mortality did not differ between groups. Five-year systolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P =.03) and lisinopril (2 mm Hg, P<.001) groups compared with chlorthalidone, and 5-year diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower with amlodipine (0.8 mm Hg, P<.001). For amlodipine vs chlorthalidone, secondary outcomes were similar except for a higher 6-year rate of HF with amlodipine (10.2% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.25-1.52). For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had higher 6-year rates of combined CVD (33.3% vs 30.9%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16); stroke (6.3% vs 5.6%; RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30); and HF (8.7% vs 7.7%; RR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.31). Thiazide-type diuretics are superior in preventing 1 or more major forms of CVD and are less expensive. They should be preferred for first-step antihypertensive therapy.
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            Preliminary criteria for the classification of the acute arthritis of primary gout.

            The American Rheumatism Association sub-committe on classification criteria for gout analyzed data from more than 700 patients with gout, pseudogout, rheumatoid arthritis, or septic arthritis. Criteria for classifying a patient as having gout were a) the presence of characteristic urate crystals in the joint fluid, and/or b) a topus proved to contain urate crystals by chemical or polarized light microscopic means, and/or c) the presence of six of the twelve clinical, laboratory, and X-ray phenomena listed in Table 5.
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              Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension. Final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). SHEP Cooperative Research Group.

              To assess the ability of antihypertensive drug treatment to reduce the risk of nonfatal and fatal (total) stroke in isolated systolic hypertension. Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled. Community-based ambulatory population in tertiary care centers. 4736 persons (1.06%) from 447,921 screenees aged 60 years and above were randomized (2365 to active treatment, 2371 to placebo). Systolic blood pressure ranged from 160 to 219 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure was less than 90 mm Hg. Of the participants, 3161 were not receiving antihypertensive medication at initial contact, and 1575 were. The average systolic blood pressure was 170 mm Hg; average diastolic blood pressure, 77 mm Hg. The mean age was 72 years, 57% were women, and 14% were black. --Participants were stratified by clinical center and by antihypertensive medication status at initial contact. For step 1 of the trial, dose 1 was chlorthalidone, 12.5 mg/d, or matching placebo; dose 2 was 25 mg/d. For step 2, dose 1 was atenolol, 25 mg/d, or matching placebo; dose 2 was 50 mg/d. Primary. Nonfatal and fatal (total) stroke. Secondary. Cardiovascular and coronary morbidity and mortality, all-cause mortality, and quality of life measures. Average follow-up was 4.5 years. The 5-year average systolic blood pressure was 155 mm Hg for the placebo group and 143 mm Hg for the active treatment group, and the 5-year average diastolic blood pressure was 72 and 68 mm Hg, respectively. The 5-year incidence of total stroke was 5.2 per 100 participants for active treatment and 8.2 per 100 for placebo. The relative risk by proportional hazards regression analysis was 0.64 (P = .0003). For the secondary end point of clinical nonfatal myocardial infarction plus coronary death, the relative risk was 0.73. Major cardiovascular events were reduced (relative risk, 0.68). For deaths from all causes, the relative risk was 0.87. In persons aged 60 years and over with isolated systolic hypertension, antihypertensive stepped-care drug treatment with low-dose chlorthalidone as step 1 medication reduced the incidence of total stroke by 36%, with 5-year absolute benefit of 30 events per 1000 participants. Major cardiovascular events were reduced, with 5-year absolute benefit of 55 events per 1000.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                16 July 2014
                : 4
                : 7
                [1 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, University of the Ryukyus , Okinawa, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Collage of Medicine , Nishinomiya, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Cardiology, Saiseikai-Futsukaichi Hospital , Chikushino, Japan
                [4 ]Sleep Apnea Centre, Kyushu University Hospital , Fukuoka, Japan
                [5 ]Department of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus , Okinawa, Japan
                [6 ]Division of Hypertension and Renal Medicine, National Cardiovascular Research Centre , Suita, Japan
                [7 ]Department of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University , Sapporo, Japan
                [8 ]Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University , Suita, Japan
                [9 ]Department of Medicine, Keio University , Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Shinichiro Ueda; blessyou@ 123456med.u-ryukyu.ac.jp
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

                Cardiovascular Medicine


                type 2 diabetes, thiazide diuretics, essential hypertension


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