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      Functional differences in epigenetic modulators-superiority of mercaptoacetamide-based histone deacetylase inhibitors relative to hydroxamates in cortical neuron neuroprotection studies.

      Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
      Acetamides, chemical synthesis, chemistry, pharmacology, Acetylation, Animals, Cell Survival, drug effects, Cells, Cultured, Cerebral Cortex, cytology, Epigenesis, Genetic, Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Histone Deacetylases, genetics, Histones, metabolism, Hydroxamic Acids, Isoenzymes, antagonists & inhibitors, Neurons, Neuroprotective Agents, Oxidative Stress, Rats, Rats, Sprague-Dawley, Structure-Activity Relationship, Sulfhydryl Compounds

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          We compare the ability of two structurally different classes of epigenetic modulators, namely, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors containing either a hydroxamate or a mercaptoacetamide as the zinc binding group, to protect cortical neurons in culture from oxidative stress-induced death. This study reveals that some of the mercaptoacetamide-based HDAC inhibitors are fully protective, whereas the hydroxamates show toxicity at higher concentrations. Our present results appear to be consistent with the possibility that the mercaptoacetamide-based HDAC inhibitors interact with a different subset of the HDAC isozymes [less activity at HDAC1 and 2 correlates with less inhibitor toxicity], or alternatively, are interacting selectively with only the cytoplasmic HDACs that are crucial for protection from oxidative stress.

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