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      Smartphone Fundus Photography

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          Abstract

          Smartphone fundus photography is a simple technique to obtain ocular fundus pictures using a smartphone camera and a conventional handheld indirect ophthalmoscopy lens. This technique is indispensable when picture documentation of optic nerve, retina, and retinal vessels is necessary but a fundus camera is not available. The main advantage of this technique is the widespread availability of smartphones that allows documentation of macula and optic nerve changes in many settings that was not previously possible. Following the well-defined steps detailed here, such as proper alignment of the phone camera, handheld lens, and the patient's pupil, is the key for obtaining a clear retina picture with no interfering light reflections and aberrations. In this paper, the optical principles of indirect ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography will be reviewed first. Then, the step-by-step method to record a good quality retinal image using a smartphone will be explained.

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          Most cited references 8

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          A mobile phone-based retinal camera for portable wide field imaging.

          Digital fundus imaging is used extensively in the diagnosis, monitoring and management of many retinal diseases. Access to fundus photography is often limited by patient morbidity, high equipment cost and shortage of trained personnel. Advancements in telemedicine methods and the development of portable fundus cameras have increased the accessibility of retinal imaging, but most of these approaches rely on separate computers for viewing and transmission of fundus images. We describe a novel portable handheld smartphone-based retinal camera capable of capturing high-quality, wide field fundus images. The use of the mobile phone platform creates a fully embedded system capable of acquisition, storage and analysis of fundus images that can be directly transmitted from the phone via the wireless telecommunication system for remote evaluation.
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            Comparison of smartphone ophthalmoscopy with slit-lamp biomicroscopy for grading diabetic retinopathy.

            To assess the accuracy and reliability of smartphone ophthalmoscopy, we compared the ability of a smartphone ophthalmoscope with that of a slit-lamp biomicroscope to grade diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).
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              Smartphones in ophthalmology

              The potential usefulness of smartphones in the medical field is evolving everyday. This article describes various tools available on smartphones, largely focusing on the iPhone, for the examination of an ophthalmic patient, for patient and physician education, as well as reference tools for both ophthalmologists and vision researchers. Furthermore, the present article discusses how smartphones can be used for ophthalmic photography and image management, and foremost, the usefulness of the applications such as the Eye Handbook for the ophthalmologist and interested students, patients, physicians, and researchers, currently available in the iPhone.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Vis Exp
                J Vis Exp
                JoVE
                Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE
                MyJove Corporation
                1940-087X
                2017
                6 July 2017
                6 July 2017
                : 125
                Affiliations
                1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch
                Author notes

                Correspondence to: Hossein Nazari Khanamiri at honazari@ 123456utmb.edu

                Article
                55958
                10.3791/55958
                5609317
                28715396
                Copyright © 2017, Journal of Visualized Experiments

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

                Categories
                Medicine

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