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      National Survey of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China

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          Abstract

          The available information on the epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China is based on local or regional surveys. In 2007, we carried out a national survey of drug-resistant tuberculosis in China. We estimated the proportion of tuberculosis cases in China that were resistant to drugs by means of cluster-randomized sampling of tuberculosis cases in the public health system and testing for resistance to the first-line antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and streptomycin and the second-line drugs ofloxacin and kanamycin. We used the results from this survey and published estimates of the incidence of tuberculosis to estimate the incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Information from patient interviews was used to identify factors linked to drug resistance. Among 3037 patients with new cases of tuberculosis and 892 with previously treated cases, 5.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5 to 7.0) and 25.6% (95% CI, 21.5 to 29.8), respectively, had multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (defined as disease that was resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin). Among all patients with tuberculosis, approximately 1 of 4 had disease that was resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, or both, and 1 of 10 had MDR tuberculosis. Approximately 8% of the patients with MDR tuberculosis had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (defined as disease that was resistant to at least isoniazid, rifampin, ofloxacin, and kanamycin). In 2007, there were 110,000 incident cases (95% CI, 97,000 to 130,000) of MDR tuberculosis and 8200 incident cases (95% CI, 7200 to 9700) of XDR tuberculosis. Most cases of MDR and XDR tuberculosis resulted from primary transmission. Patients with multiple previous treatments who had received their last treatment in a tuberculosis hospital had the highest risk of MDR tuberculosis (adjusted odds ratio, 13.3; 95% CI, 3.9 to 46.0). Among 226 previously treated patients with MDR tuberculosis, 43.8% had not completed their last treatment; most had been treated in the hospital system. Among those who had completed treatment, tuberculosis developed again in most of the patients after their treatment in the public health system. China has a serious epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis. MDR tuberculosis is linked to inadequate treatment in both the public health system and the hospital system, especially tuberculosis hospitals; however, primary transmission accounts for most cases. (Funded by the Chinese Ministry of Health.).

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          Most cited references14

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          Multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a threat to global control of tuberculosis.

          Although progress has been made to reduce global incidence of drug-susceptible tuberculosis, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis during the past decade threatens to undermine these advances. However, countries are responding far too slowly. Of the estimated 440,000 cases of MDR tuberculosis that occurred in 2008, only 7% were identified and reported to WHO. Of these cases, only a fifth were treated according to WHO standards. Although treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis is possible with currently available diagnostic techniques and drugs, the treatment course is substantially more costly and laborious than for drug-susceptible tuberculosis, with higher rates of treatment failure and mortality. Nonetheless, a few countries provide examples of how existing technologies can be used to reverse the epidemic of MDR tuberculosis within a decade. Major improvements in laboratory capacity, infection control, performance of tuberculosis control programmes, and treatment regimens for both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant disease will be needed, together with a massive scale-up in diagnosis and treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis to prevent drug-resistant strains from becoming the dominant form of tuberculosis. New diagnostic tests and drugs are likely to become available during the next few years and should accelerate control of MDR and XDR tuberculosis. Equally important, especially in the highest-burden countries of India, China, and Russia, will be a commitment to tuberculosis control including improvements in national policies and health systems that remove financial barriers to treatment, encourage rational drug use, and create the infrastructure necessary to manage MDR tuberculosis on a national scale. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance.

            Global control of tuberculosis is hampered by slow, insensitive diagnostic methods, particularly for the detection of drug-resistant forms and in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Early detection is essential to reduce the death rate and interrupt transmission, but the complexity and infrastructure needs of sensitive methods limit their accessibility and effect. We assessed the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, an automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and resistance to rifampin (RIF), with fully integrated sample processing in 1730 patients with suspected drug-sensitive or multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Eligible patients in Peru, Azerbaijan, South Africa, and India provided three sputum specimens each. Two specimens were processed with N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium hydroxide before microscopy, solid and liquid culture, and the MTB/RIF test, and one specimen was used for direct testing with microscopy and the MTB/RIF test. Among culture-positive patients, a single, direct MTB/RIF test identified 551 of 561 patients with smear-positive tuberculosis (98.2%) and 124 of 171 with smear-negative tuberculosis (72.5%). The test was specific in 604 of 609 patients without tuberculosis (99.2%). Among patients with smear-negative, culture-positive tuberculosis, the addition of a second MTB/RIF test increased sensitivity by 12.6 percentage points and a third by 5.1 percentage points, to a total of 90.2%. As compared with phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing, MTB/RIF testing correctly identified 200 of 205 patients (97.6%) with rifampin-resistant bacteria and 504 of 514 (98.1%) with rifampin-sensitive bacteria. Sequencing resolved all but two cases in favor of the MTB/RIF assay. The MTB/RIF test provided sensitive detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance directly from untreated sputum in less than 2 hours with minimal hands-on time. (Funded by the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics.)
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              Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): a randomised trial.

              Mobile (cell) phone communication has been suggested as a method to improve delivery of health services. However, data on the effects of mobile health technology on patient outcomes in resource-limited settings are limited. We aimed to assess whether mobile phone communication between health-care workers and patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Kenya improved drug adherence and suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA load. WelTel Kenya1 was a multisite randomised clinical trial of HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in three clinics in Kenya. Patients were randomised (1:1) by simple randomisation with a random number generating program to a mobile phone short message service (SMS) intervention or standard care. Patients in the intervention group received weekly SMS messages from a clinic nurse and were required to respond within 48 h. Randomisation, laboratory assays, and analyses were done by investigators masked to treatment allocation; however, study participants and clinic staff were not masked to treatment. Primary outcomes were self-reported ART adherence (>95% of prescribed doses in the past 30 days at both 6 and 12 month follow-up visits) and plasma HIV-1 viral RNA load suppression (<400 copies per mL) at 12 months. The primary analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00830622. Between May, 2007, and October, 2008, we randomly assigned 538 participants to the SMS intervention (n=273) or to standard care (n=265). Adherence to ART was reported in 168 of 273 patients receiving the SMS intervention compared with 132 of 265 in the control group (relative risk [RR] for non-adherence 0·81, 95% CI 0·69-0·94; p=0·006). Suppressed viral loads were reported in 156 of 273 patients in the SMS group and 128 of 265 in the control group, (RR for virologic failure 0·84, 95% CI 0·71-0·99; p=0·04). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve greater than 95% adherence was nine (95% CI 5·0-29·5) and the NNT to achieve viral load suppression was 11 (5·8-227·3). Patients who received SMS support had significantly improved ART adherence and rates of viral suppression compared with the control individuals. Mobile phones might be effective tools to improve patient outcome in resource-limited settings. US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                June 07 2012
                June 07 2012
                : 366
                : 23
                : 2161-2170
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMoa1108789
                22670902
                be59c30b-b2b5-41af-8523-759567132c62
                © 2012
                History

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