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      New Vistas in Anti-Inflammatory Therapy

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 16

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          PPAR-gamma agonists inhibit production of monocyte inflammatory cytokines.

           Sarah Ting,  C. Jiang,  B Seed (1998)
          The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, a large and diverse group of proteins that mediate ligand-dependent transcriptional activation and repression. Expression of PPAR-gamma is an early and pivotal event in the differentiation of adipocytes. Several agents that promote differentiation of fibroblast lines into adipocytes have been shown to be PPAR-gamma agonists, including several prostanoids, of which 15-deoxy-delta-prostaglandin J2 is the most potent, as well as members of a new class of oral antidiabetic agents, the thiazolidinediones, and a variety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Here we show that PPAR-gamma agonists suppress monocyte elaboration of inflammatory cytokines at agonist concentrations similar to those found to be effective for the promotion of adipogenesis. Inhibition of cytokine production may help to explain the incremental therapeutic benefit of NSAIDs observed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis at plasma drug concentrations substantially higher than are required to inhibit prostaglandin G/H synthase (cyclooxygenase).
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            The anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and salicylate inhibit the activity of I(kappa)B kinase-beta.

            NF-kappaB comprises a family of cellular transcription factors that are involved in the inducible expression of a variety of cellular genes that regulate the inflammatory response. NF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory proteins, I(kappa)B, which are phosphorylated by a cellular kinase complex known as IKK. IKK is made up of two kinases, IKK-alpha and IKK-beta, which phosphorylate I(kappa)B, leading to its degradation and translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. IKK kinase activity is stimulated when cells are exposed to the cytokine TNF-alpha or by overexpression of the cellular kinases MEKK1 and NIK. Here we demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and sodium salicylate specifically inhibit IKK-beta activity in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of aspirin and sodium salicylate inhibition is due to binding of these agents to IKK-beta to reduce ATP binding. Our results indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin and salicylate are mediated in part by their specific inhibition of IKK-beta, thereby preventing activation by NF-kappaB of genes involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory response.
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              Inducible cyclooxygenase may have anti-inflammatory properties.

              Cyclooxygenase (COX) has two isoforms. Generally, COX 1 is constitutively expressed in most tissues, where it maintains physiological processes; inducible COX 2 is considered a pro-inflammatory enzyme and a chief target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here we present evidence that COX 2 may have anti-inflammatory properties. In carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats, the predominant cells at 2 hours are polymorphonuclear leucocytes, whereas mononuclear cells dominate from 24 hours until resolution at 48 hours. In this model, COX 2 protein expression peaked initially at 2 hours, associated with maximal prostaglandin E2 synthesis. However, at 48 hours there was a second increase in COX 2 expression, 350% greater than that at 2 hours. Paradoxically, this coincided with inflammatory resolution and was associated with minimal prostaglandin E2 synthesis. In contrast, levels of prostaglandin D2, and 15deoxy delta(12-14)prostaglandin J2 were high at 2 hours, decreased as inflammation increased, but were increased again at 48 hours. The selective COX 2 inhibitor NS-398 and the dual COX 1/COX 2 inhibitor indomethacin inhibited inflammation at 2 hours but significantly exacerbated inflammation at 48 hours. This exacerbation was associated with reduced exudate prostaglandin D2 and 15deoxy delta(12-14)prostaglandin J2 concentrations, and was reversed by replacement of these prostaglandins. Thus, COX 2 may be pro-inflammatory during the early phase of a carrageenin-induced pleurisy, dominated by polymorphonuclear leucocytes, but may aid resolution at the later, mononuclear cell-dominated phase by generating an alternative set of anti-inflammatory prostaglandins.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                25 July 2001
                : 88
                : 4
                : 289-295
                Affiliations
                Oxford, UK
                Article
                46011 Nephron 2001;88:289–295
                10.1159/000046011
                11474222
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 72, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46011
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

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