25 patients with angiographic features suggestive of endomyocardial fibrosis underwent endocardiectomy and atrioventricular valve replacement. There were 8 deaths. 17 survivors were reevaluated after a mean follow-up of 13.5 months. 8 had right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis (RVEMF) 5 had left ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis (LVEMF) and 4 had biventricular disease (BVEMF). The survivors showed a significant improvement in their clinical features and functional status. There was a significant reduction in atrial size in X-ray. Hemodynamic data showed a significant fall in right heart filling pressure, right ventricular systolic pressure and pulmonary artery mean pressure, and a significant fall in left heart filling pressure in patients with left ventricular disease either alone or as a part of biventricular disease. In ventriculogram, while there was no change in right ventricular shape after endocardiectomy, left ventricular shape was restored to near normal. The significant improvement is mostly due to the correction of the regurgitant lesion and to some extent due to restoration of ventricular compliance.