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      Is Increasing Urinary Albumin a Better Marker for Microvascular than for Macrovascular Complication of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus?

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          Aims: The aims of the study were to evaluate the prevalence of increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and associated cardiovascular risk factors and vascular diabetes complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: We studied 975 patients in a cross-sectional design from 1998 to 2000. Frequency of micro- and macroalbuminuria, and their associations with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular DM complications, were examined. Results: Prevalence of increased UAE was 28.5% (18.3% micro- and 10.2% macroalbuminuria). Body mass index (BMI) (only females) and hemoglobin (Hb)A1c significantly correlated with macroalbuminuria (p = 0.034, p = 0.027, respectively), while high blood pressure (diastolic) was associated with microalbuminuria (p = 0.008). Diabetes duration, high systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly correlated with both micro- and macroalbuminuria. Increased UAE was associated with neuropathy (relative risk (RR) 2.12, confidence interval (CI) 1.07–4.19), retinopathy (RR 2.19, CI 1.76–2.74) and hypertension (RR 2.91, CI 1.77–4.78), but not with cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol and peripheral vascular disease. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, a significant association of albuminuria was found with diabetes duration (odds ratio (OR) 1.59, CI 0.98–2.58; p < 0062), hypertension (OR 3.42, CI 2.22–5.27; p < 0.0001), low HDL cholesterol (OR 1.78, CI 1.31–2.43; p < 0.0003), current smoking status (OR 2.19, CI 1.32–3.64; p < 0.0024), and increased serum creatinine (OR 11.16, CI 5.7–21.7; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Prevalence of increased UAE was similar to that described in other geographically close populations. The stronger association found with microvascular diabetes complications suggests that increased UAE is a better predictor for renal damage than for cardiovascular disease in this type 2 DM population.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes.

           C E Mogensen (1984)
          We studied whether microalbuminuria (30 to 140 micrograms of albumin per milliliter) would predict the later development of increased proteinuria and early mortality in Type II diabetics. During 1973, morning urine specimens of diabetic clinic patients 50 to 75 years of age whose disease had been diagnosed the age of 45 were examined for albumin level by radioimmunoassay. Seventy-six patients with albumin concentrations of 30 to 140 micrograms per milliliter were identified for long-term follow-up. They were compared with normal controls, diabetic patients with lower albumin concentrations (75 patients with concentrations less than 15 micrograms per milliliter and 53 with concentrations of 16 to 29 micrograms per milliliter), and 28 diabetic patients with higher concentrations (greater than 140). Age, duration of diabetes, treatment method, fasting blood glucose level, blood pressure, height, and weight were determined for the four diabetic groups. After nine years the group with albumin concentrations of 30 to 140 micrograms per milliliter was more likely to have clinically detectable proteinuria (greater than 400 micrograms per milliliter) than were the groups with lower concentrations. Mortality was 148 per cent higher in this group than in normal controls--comparable to the increase (116 per cent) in the group with heavy proteinuria (albumin levels greater than 140 micrograms per milliliter). In addition, mortality was increased 76 per cent in the group with albumin levels of 16 to 29 micrograms per milliliter and 37 per cent in the group with levels below 15. We conclude that microalbuminuria in patients with Type II diabetes is predictive of clinical proteinuria and increased mortality.
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            Prevalence and causes of albuminuria in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

            A prospective study of the prevalence and causes of persistent albuminuria (greater than 300 mg/24 hr) was conducted in non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients, age less than 66 years, attending a diabetic clinic during 1987. All eligible patients (N = 370) were asked to collect at least one 24-hour urine sample for albumin analysis. Urine collection was obtained in 224 males and 139 females (98%). Fifty patients (7 women) suffered from persistent albuminuria (13.8%). The prevalence of albuminuria was significantly higher in males (19%) than in females (5%). A kidney biopsy was performed in 35 patients (70%). The kidney biopsies revealed diffuse and/or nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis in 27 patients (77%), while the remaining eight patients (23%) had a variety of non-diabetic glomerulopathies, such as minimal lesion and mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Diabetic retinopathy was present in 15 of 27 patients (56%) with diabetic glomerulosclerosis, while none of the eight patients with a non-diabetic glomerulopathy had retinopathy. Our cross sectional study has revealed a high prevalence of albuminuria and of non-diabetic glomerulopathy as a cause of this complication in NIDDM patients. Presence of diabetic retinopathy strongly suggests that a diabetic glomerulopathy is the cause of albuminuria. Albuminuric non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients without retinopathy require further evaluation, that is, kidney biopsy.
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              Main risk factors for nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus are plasma cholesterol levels, mean blood pressure, and hyperglycemia.

              The control of hyperglycemia is of major importance in the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, there is no consensus about the required degree of metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and about the role of hyperglycemia in diabetic nephropathy and in the development of atherosclerosis in relation to other risk factors. A prospective, long-term follow-up study was conducted on 574 patients, aged 40 to 60 years, with recent onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients were initially normotensive and had normal renal function and a normal urinary albumin excretion rate ( 300 mg/24 h). Logistic regression models demonstrated that the correlation between hemoglobin A1c levels and the risk of albuminuria is exponential. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that levels of total cholesterol, mean blood pressure, and hemoglobin A1c were the main factors associated with the decrease in renal function and with the increase in albuminuria. The combination of values higher than the 50th percentile of all 3 factors defined a high-risk patient population. These high-risk patients had an odds ratio of 43 (95% confidence interval, 25-106) for microalbuminuria and 15 (95% confidence interval, 9-25) for clinical events related to arteriosclerosis compared with the rest of the group. Low levels of high-density lipoprotein, body mass index, cigarette smoking, low socioeconomic status, and male sex were all significantly associated with diabetic nephropathy, as well as with the manifestations of arteriosclerosis. The combination of blood pressure values in the high-normal range with moderately elevated levels of total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c defines a high-risk group for the progression to diabetic nephropathy and for clinical events related to arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                November 2005
                06 July 2005
                : 101
                : 3
                : c116-c121
                aJiménez Díaz Foundation, Autónoma University, Madrid, bPuerta del Mar Hospital, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Cadiz, c12 de Octubre Hospital, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Complutense University, Madrid, dClinic Hospital, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Granada University, Granada, eGeneral Hospital, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Jaen, and fLOGITEST, Madrid, Spain
                86681 Nephron Clin Pract 2005;101:c116–c121
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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