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      Intravital Imaging of the Kidney Using Multiparameter Multiphoton Microscopy

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          Abstract

          Intravital optical microscopy provides a powerful means of studying the cell biology in the most physiologically relevant setting. The ability of multiphoton microscopy to collect optical sections deep into biological tissues has opened up the field of intravital microscopy to high-resolution studies of multiple organs. Presented here are examples of how two-photon microscopy can be applied to intravital studies of kidney physiology and the study of disease processes. These include studies of cell vitality and apoptosis, fluid transport, receptor-mediated endocytosis, blood flow, and leukocyte trafficking. Efficient two-photon excitation of multiple fluorophores permits comparison of multiple probes and simultaneous characterization of multiple parameters. Two-photon microscopy can now provide a level of investigation previously unattainable in intravital microscopy, enabling kinetic analyses and physiological studies of the organs of living animals with subcellular resolution. Therefore, application of this technology will provide direct visualization of organ-specific and cell-specific responses to an array of stimuli and therapeutic approaches, enhancing our understanding and treatment of disease processes.

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          Most cited references 7

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          In vivo dendritic calcium dynamics in neocortical pyramidal neurons.

           K Svoboda,  D Tank,  W Denk (1997)
          The dendrites of mammalian pyramidal neurons contain a rich collection of active conductances that can support Na+ and Ca2+ action potentials (for a review see ref. 1). The presence, site of initiation, and direction of propagation of Na+ and Ca2+ action potentials are, however, controversial, and seem to be sensitive to resting membrane potential, ionic composition, and degree of channel inactivation, and depend on the intensity and pattern of synaptic stimulation. This makes it difficult to extrapolate from in vitro experiments to the situation in the intact brain. Here we show that two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy can penetrate the highly scattering tissue of the intact brain. We used this property to measure sensory stimulus-induced dendritic [Ca2+] dynamics of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the rat primary vibrissa (Sm1) cortex in vivo. Simultaneous recordings of intracellular voltage and dendritic [Ca2+] dynamics during whisker stimulation or current injection showed increases in [Ca2+] only in coincidence with Na+ action potentials. The amplitude of these [Ca2+] transients at a given location was approximately proportional to the number of Na+ action potentials in a short burst. The amplitude for a given number of action potentials was greatest in the proximal apical dendrite and declined steeply with increasing distance from the soma, with little Ca2+ accumulation in the most distal branches, in layer 1. This suggests that widespread Ca2+ action potentials were not generated, and any significant [Ca2+] increase depends on somatically triggered Na+ action potentials.
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            Experience-dependent plasticity of dendritic spines in the developing rat barrel cortex in vivo.

            Do changes in neuronal structure underlie cortical plasticity? Here we used time-lapse two-photon microscopy of pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 of developing rat barrel cortex to image the structural dynamics of dendritic spines and filopodia. We found that these protrusions were highly motile: spines and filopodia appeared, disappeared or changed shape over tens of minutes. To test whether sensory experience drives this motility we trimmed whiskers one to three days before imaging. Sensory deprivation markedly (approximately 40%) reduced protrusive motility in deprived regions of the barrel cortex during a critical period around postnatal days (P)11-13, but had no effect in younger (P8-10) or older (P14-16) animals. Unexpectedly, whisker trimming did not change the density, length or shape of spines and filopodia. However, sensory deprivation during the critical period degraded the tuning of layer 2/3 receptive fields. Thus sensory experience drives structural plasticity in dendrites, which may underlie the reorganization of neural circuits.
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              In vivo measurement of gene expression, angiogenesis and physiological function in tumors using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy.

              Intravital microscopy coupled with chronic animal window models has provided stunning insight into tumor pathophysiology, including gene expression, angiogenesis, cell adhesion and migration, vascular, interstitial and lymphatic transport, metabolic microenvironment and drug delivery. However, the findings to date have been limited to the tumor surface (< 150 microm). Here, we show that the multiphoton laser-scanning microscope can provide high three-dimensional resolution of gene expression and function in deeper regions of tumors. These insights could be critical to the development of novel therapeutics that target not only the tumor surface, but also internal regions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2003
                May 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 1
                : e7-e11
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, and Indiana Center for Biological Microscopy and bRoudebush Veterans Administration Medical Center, Indiana University Medical Center, Indianapolis,Ind.,USA
                Article
                70813 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94:e7–e11
                10.1159/000070813
                12806182
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/70813
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