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      Urinary bladder contraction and relaxation: physiology and pathophysiology.

      Physiological reviews
      Animals, Hormones, metabolism, Humans, Muscle Contraction, Muscle Relaxation, Muscle, Smooth, physiology, physiopathology, Nervous System, Nervous System Physiological Phenomena, Urinary Bladder, Urinary Bladder Diseases, Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction, Urologic Diseases

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          The detrusor smooth muscle is the main muscle component of the urinary bladder wall. Its ability to contract over a large length interval and to relax determines the bladder function during filling and micturition. These processes are regulated by several external nervous and hormonal control systems, and the detrusor contains multiple receptors and signaling pathways. Functional changes of the detrusor can be found in several clinically important conditions, e.g., lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and bladder outlet obstruction. The aim of this review is to summarize and synthesize basic information and recent advances in the understanding of the properties of the detrusor smooth muscle, its contractile system, cellular signaling, membrane properties, and cellular receptors. Alterations in these systems in pathological conditions of the bladder wall are described, and some areas for future research are suggested.

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