The arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were determined in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during a 24-hour period in 7 male patients suffering from hydrocephalus of differing etiologies. Blood and ventricular CSF samples were simultaneously collected every 2 h during the day (08.00–22.00) and every hour during the night (24.00–07.00). In both plasma and CSF, the AVP levels did not show significant time-related circadian variations. No significant correlation was found between the plasma and CSF AVP values during the 24-hour period. The data obtained indicate the absence of the plasma and CSF AVP circadian rhythm in hydrocephalic patients and suggest that in these patients, and possibly in healthy humans, physiological stimuli which are able to induce variations in the plasma AVP concentration during daily life do not alter the CSF AVP content.