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      Electrocardiographic Findings of Repolarization in Athletic Students and Control Subjects

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          We have investigated resting electrocardiograms in 1,299 athletic students and 151 sedentary control subjects. ST elevations were more frequent and pronounced in athletes compared to controls, whereas there was no difference in ST depressions. Athletes with ST elevation above 2 mm were characterized by lower heart rate, increased PQ duration, increased indices of left, right and septal hypertrophy and T wave amplitude. Negative T waves in 3 of 6 precordial leads, V<sub>3-6</sub>, were found in 1.5% of athletes and 0.7% of controls, and in V<sub>5-6</sub> in 0.4% of athletes and none of controls, the differences not being significant. Athletes had significantly more often a T wave axis between +30 and -180° and less often a frontal T wave axis between +30 and +180°. The mean QRS-T angle was significantly greater in athletes, and U waves were more prominent. Analyzing athletes with QT<sub>C</sub> below and above 0.430 s, we found an increased heart rate, QRS duration, ST depression and a more pronounced left QRS axis in the group with QT<sub>C</sub> above 0.430 s. There was a positive correlation between QT<sub>C</sub> and heart rate which indicates that the use of Bazett’s formula leads to an underestimation of QT<sub>C</sub> at lower heart rates and to an overestimation at higher heart rates. Bazett’s formula does not provide an adequate correction for heart rate and should be used with caution. Our finding of a prolonged QT<sub>C</sub> in athletes compared to control subjects in spite of lower heart rate in the athletic group demonstrates that a real QT<sub>C</sub> prolongation exists in athletes.

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          Author and article information

          S. Karger AG
          18 November 2008
          : 84
          : 1
          : 51-60
          International Cardiological Institute for Therapeutic Research (ICIT), University of Oslo, The Norwegian College of Physical Education and Sports, and Norsk Hydro, Oslo, Norway
          176328 Cardiology 1994;84:51–60
          © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Pages: 10
          Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation


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