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      Electrocardiographic Findings of Repolarization in Athletic Students and Control Subjects

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          Abstract

          We have investigated resting electrocardiograms in 1,299 athletic students and 151 sedentary control subjects. ST elevations were more frequent and pronounced in athletes compared to controls, whereas there was no difference in ST depressions. Athletes with ST elevation above 2 mm were characterized by lower heart rate, increased PQ duration, increased indices of left, right and septal hypertrophy and T wave amplitude. Negative T waves in 3 of 6 precordial leads, V<sub>3-6</sub>, were found in 1.5% of athletes and 0.7% of controls, and in V<sub>5-6</sub> in 0.4% of athletes and none of controls, the differences not being significant. Athletes had significantly more often a T wave axis between +30 and -180° and less often a frontal T wave axis between +30 and +180°. The mean QRS-T angle was significantly greater in athletes, and U waves were more prominent. Analyzing athletes with QT<sub>C</sub> below and above 0.430 s, we found an increased heart rate, QRS duration, ST depression and a more pronounced left QRS axis in the group with QT<sub>C</sub> above 0.430 s. There was a positive correlation between QT<sub>C</sub> and heart rate which indicates that the use of Bazett’s formula leads to an underestimation of QT<sub>C</sub> at lower heart rates and to an overestimation at higher heart rates. Bazett’s formula does not provide an adequate correction for heart rate and should be used with caution. Our finding of a prolonged QT<sub>C</sub> in athletes compared to control subjects in spite of lower heart rate in the athletic group demonstrates that a real QT<sub>C</sub> prolongation exists in athletes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          CRD
          Cardiology
          10.1159/issn.0008-6312
          Cardiology
          S. Karger AG
          0008-6312
          1421-9751
          1994
          1994
          18 November 2008
          : 84
          : 1
          : 51-60
          Affiliations
          International Cardiological Institute for Therapeutic Research (ICIT), University of Oslo, The Norwegian College of Physical Education and Sports, and Norsk Hydro, Oslo, Norway
          Article
          176328 Cardiology 1994;84:51–60
          10.1159/000176328
          8149389
          © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 10
          Categories
          Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation

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