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      MicroRNA-146a Is a Wide-Reaching Neuroinflammatory Regulator and Potential Treatment Target in Neurological Diseases

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          Progressive functional deterioration and loss of neurons underlies neurological diseases and constitutes an important cause of disability and death worldwide. The causes of various types of neurological diseases often share several critical nerve-related cellular mechanisms and pathological features, particularly the neuroinflammatory response in the nervous system. A rapidly growing body of evidence indicates that various microRNAs play pivotal roles in these processes in neurological diseases and might be viable therapeutic targets. Among these microRNAs, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) stands out due to the rapid increase in recent literature on its mechanistic involvement in neurological diseases. In this review, we summarize and highlight the critical role of miR-146a in neurological diseases. MiR-146a polymorphisms are associated with the risk of neurological disease. Alterations in miR-146a expression levels are crucial events in the pathogenesis of numerous neurological diseases that are spatially and temporally diverse. Additionally, the target genes of miR-146a are involved in the regulation of pathophysiological processes in neurological diseases, particularly the neuroinflammatory response. In summary, miR-146a mainly plays a critical role in neuroinflammation during the progression of neurological diseases and might be a prospective biomarker and therapeutic target. Understanding the mechanisms by which miR-146a affects the neuroinflammatory response in different neurological injuries, different cell types, and even different stages of certain neurological diseases will pave the way for its use as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.

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          Most cited references 130

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          Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease include insidious onset and progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. There are no motor, sensory, or coordination deficits early in the disease. The diagnosis cannot be determined by laboratory tests. These tests are important primarily in identifying other possible causes of dementia that must be excluded before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease may be made with confidence. Neuropsychological tests provide confirmatory evidence of the diagnosis of dementia and help to assess the course and response to therapy. The criteria proposed are intended to serve as a guide for the diagnosis of probable, possible, and definite Alzheimer's disease; these criteria will be revised as more definitive information become available.
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            Activation of mammalian innate and acquired immune responses must be tightly regulated by elaborate mechanisms to control their onset and termination. MicroRNAs have been implicated as negative regulators controlling diverse biological processes at the level of posttranscriptional repression. Expression profiling of 200 microRNAs in human monocytes revealed that several of them (miR-146a/b, miR-132, and miR-155) are endotoxin-responsive genes. Analysis of miR-146a and miR-146b gene expression unveiled a pattern of induction in response to a variety of microbial components and proinflammatory cytokines. By means of promoter analysis, miR-146a was found to be a NF-kappaB-dependent gene. Importantly, miR-146a/b were predicted to base-pair with sequences in the 3' UTRs of the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 genes, and we found that these UTRs inhibit expression of a linked reporter gene. These genes encode two key adapter molecules downstream of Toll-like and cytokine receptors. Thus, we propose a role for miR-146 in control of Toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling through a negative feedback regulation loop involving down-regulation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and TNF receptor-associated factor 6 protein levels.
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              A potent neurotrophic factor that enhances survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons was purified and cloned. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a glycosylated, disulfide-bonded homodimer that is a distantly related member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. In embryonic midbrain cultures, recombinant human GDNF promoted the survival and morphological differentiation of dopaminergic neurons and increased their high-affinity dopamine uptake. These effects were relatively specific; GDNF did not increase total neuron or astrocyte numbers nor did it increase transmitter uptake by gamma-aminobutyric-containing and serotonergic neurons. GDNF may have utility in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, which is marked by progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

                Author and article information

                Front Mol Neurosci
                Front Mol Neurosci
                Front. Mol. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                05 June 2020
                : 13
                1Guangdong Key Laboratory of Age-Related Cardiac and Cerebral Diseases, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University , Zhanjiang, China
                2Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University , Zhanjiang, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Beena Pillai, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR), India

                Reviewed by: Li Zeng, National Neuroscience Institute (NNI), Singapore; Marco Venturin, University of Milan, Italy

                *Correspondence: Haihong Zhou doctorzhh1201@ Lili Cui cuilili@

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                Copyright © 2020 Fan, Liang, Ou, Zou, Sun, Zhou and Cui.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 130, Pages: 14, Words: 10715


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